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Biochemistry data

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Published Data

On our portal, “Biochemistry” has a broad meaning, including cell- and plasma profiling with, for example, biomarker concentrations in plasma.

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Data available on the European COVID-19 Data Portal

Data available from research groups in Sweden

The list below is curated manually and as such may not be exhaustive. If you would like to see your dataset here or correct information about your dataset, please get in touch with us. Projects sharing data where at least one author has an affiliation with a Swedish research institute are included. At this point, projects which share data openly or which explicitly promise to share data on request are included in this section. In the near future, only projects that either share data openly or have at least a metadata-only record with a clear data access procedure will be included.

Last updated: 2021-04-13

Project Last updated Available data
Messner CB, Demichev V, Bloomfield N, Yu JSL, White M, [...], Ralser M
Nat Biotechnol
10.1038/s41587-021-00860-4
Accurate quantification of the proteome remains challenging for large sample series and longitudinal experiments. We report a data-independent acquisition method, Scanning SWATH, that accelerates mass spectrometric (MS) duty cycles, yielding quantitative proteomes in combination with short gradients and high-flow (800 µl min -1) chromatography. Exploiting a continuous movement of the precursor isolation window to assign precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragment traces, Scanning SWATH increases precursor identifications by ~70% compared to conventional data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods on 0.5-5-min chromatographic gradients. We demonstrate the application of ultra-fast proteomics in drug mode-of-action screening and plasma proteomics. Scanning SWATH proteomes capture the mode of action of fungistatic azoles and statins. Moreover, we confirm 43 and identify 11 new plasma proteome biomarkers of COVID-19 severity, advancing patient classification and biomarker discovery. Thus, our results demonstrate a substantial acceleration and increased depth in fast proteomic experiments that facilitate proteomic drug screens and clinical studies.
2021-03-25
Sherina N, Piralla A, Du L, Wan H, Kumagai-Braesch M, [...], Pan-Hammarström Q
Med (N Y)
10.1016/j.medj.2021.02.001
Monitoring the adaptive immune responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides useful information for the development of vaccination strategies against this virus and its emerging variants. We thus profiled the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and specific memory B- and T-cell responses in convalescent coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. Altogether 119 samples from 88 convalescent donors who experienced mild to critical disease were tested for the presence of elevated anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibody levels over a period of eight months. In addition, level of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, specific memory B- and T-cell responses were tested in a subset of samples. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were present in 85% of the samples collected within 4 weeks after onset of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Levels of specific IgM/IgA antibodies declined after 1 month while levels of specific IgG antibodies and plasma neutralizing activities remained relatively stable up to 6 months after diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were still present, though at a significantly lower level, in 80% of the samples collected at 6-8 months after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B- and T-cell responses developed with time and were persistent in all patients followed up till 6-8 months. Our data suggest that protective adaptive immunity following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 might persist for at least 6-8 months, regardless of disease severity. Development of medium or long-term protective immunity through vaccination might thus be possible. EU-ATAC consortium, the Italian Ministry of Health and SciLife/KAW.
2021-02-10 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients (N=122 Italian, N=12 Swedish)
Chen X, Saccon E, Appelberg KS, Mikaeloff F, Rodriguez JE, [...], Gupta S
medRxiv
10.1101/2021.02.04.429738
2021-02-04 Bioinformatics analysis code
Lourda M, Dzidic M, Hertwig L, Bergsten H, Palma Medina LM, [...], None
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250591
2021-01-31 Karolinska KI/K Covid19 Immune atlas
Persson BD, John L, Rafie K, Strebl M, Frängsmyr L, [...], Arnberg N
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118 (3)
10.1073/pnas.2020732118
Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) types are currently being explored as vaccine vectors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other severe infectious diseases. The efficacy of such vector-based vaccines depends on functional interactions with receptors on host cells. Adenoviruses of different species are assumed to enter host cells mainly by interactions between the knob domain of the protruding fiber capsid protein and cellular receptors. Using a cell-based receptor-screening assay, we identified CD46 as a receptor for HAdV-D56. The function of CD46 was validated in infection experiments using cells lacking and overexpressing CD46, and by competition infection experiments using soluble CD46. Remarkably, unlike HAdV-B types that engage CD46 through interactions with the knob domain of the fiber protein, HAdV-D types infect host cells through a direct interaction between CD46 and the hexon protein. Soluble hexon proteins (but not fiber knob) inhibited HAdV-D56 infection, and surface plasmon analyses demonstrated that CD46 binds to HAdV-D hexon (but not fiber knob) proteins. Cryoelectron microscopy analysis of the HAdV-D56 virion-CD46 complex confirmed the interaction and showed that CD46 binds to the central cavity of hexon trimers. Finally, soluble CD46 inhibited infection by 16 out of 17 investigated HAdV-D types, suggesting that CD46 is an important receptor for a large group of adenoviruses. In conclusion, this study identifies a noncanonical entry mechanism used by human adenoviruses, which adds to the knowledge of adenovirus biology and can also be useful for development of adenovirus-based vaccine vectors.
2021-01-19 PDB 7AJP: Crystal Structure of Human Adenovirus 56 Fiber Knob
Iravani B, Peter MG, Arshamian A, Olsson MJ, Hummel T, [...], Lundström JN
bioRxiv
10.1101/2021.01.11.426175
2021-01-13 Available on request
Koenig PA, Das H, Liu H, Kümmerer BM, Gohr FN, [...], Schmidt FI
Science 371 (6530) eabe6230
10.1126/science.abe6230
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread with devastating consequences. For passive immunization efforts, nanobodies have size and cost advantages over conventional antibodies. Here, we generated four neutralizing nanobodies that target the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We defined two distinct binding epitopes using x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Based on the structures, we engineered multivalent nanobodies with more than 100-fold improved neutralizing activity than monovalent nanobodies. Biparatopic nanobody fusions suppressed the emergence of escape mutants. Several nanobody constructs neutralized through receptor-binding competition, while other monovalent and biparatopic nanobodies triggered aberrant activation of the spike fusion machinery. These premature conformational changes in the spike protein forestalled productive fusion, and rendered the virions non-infectious.
2021-01-12
Kermani NZ, None , Song WJ, Badi Y, Versi A, [...], Chung KF
Respir Res 22 (1) 101876
10.1186/s12931-020-01605-8
Bats are reservoirs for a large number of viruses which have potential to cause major human disease outbreaks, including the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Major efforts are underway to understand bat immune response to viruses, whereas much less is known about their immune responses to bacteria. In this study, MR1-restricted T (MR1T) cells were detected through the use of MR1 tetramers in circulation and tissues of Pteropus alecto (Pa) bats. Pa MR1T cells exhibited weak responses to MR1-presented microbial metabolites at resting state. However, following priming with MR1-presented agonist they proliferated, upregulated critical transcription factors and cytolytic proteins, and gained transient expression of Th1/17-related cytokines and antibacterial cytotoxicity. Collectively, these findings show that the Pa bat immune system encompasses an abundant and functionally conserved population of MR1T cells with mucosal-associated invariant T-like characteristics, suggesting that MR1 and MR1T cells also play a significant role in bat immune defense.
2021-01-07 Available on request
Havervall S, Jernbom Falk A, Klingstrom J, Ng H, Greilert Norin N, [...], Thalin C
medRxiv
10.1101/2021.01.03.21249162
2021-01-04 Available on request
Pettke A, Tampere M, Pronk R, Wallner O, Falk A, [...], Puumalainen MR
Viruses 13 (1) 37
10.3390/v13010037
RNA viruses have gained plenty of attention during recent outbreaks of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Ebola virus. ZIKV is a vector borne Flavivirus that is spread by mosquitoes and it mainly infects neuronal progenitor cells. One hallmark of congenital ZIKV disease is a reduced brain size in fetuses, leading to severe neurological defects. The World Health Organization (WHO) is urging the development of new antiviral treatments against ZIKV, as there are no efficient countermeasures against ZIKV disease. Previously, we presented a new class of host-targeting antivirals active against a number of pathogenic RNA viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Here, we show the transfer of the image-based phenotypic antiviral assay to ZIKV-infected brain cells, followed by mechanism-of-action studies and a proof-of-concept study in a three-dimensional (3D) organoid model. The novel antiviral compounds showed a therapeutic window against ZIKV in several cell models and rescued ZIKV-induced neurotoxicity in brain organoids. The compound's mechanism-of-action was pinpointed to late steps in the virus life cycle, impairing the formation of new virus particles. Collectively, in this study, we expand the antiviral activity of new small molecule inhibitors to a new virus class of Flaviviruses, but also uncover compounds' mechanism of action, which are important for the further development of antivirals.
2020-12-29 The effect of novel antiviral compounds against ZIKV in several cell models; other supporting data
Gossen J, Albani S, Hanke A, Joseph BP, Bergh C, [...], Rossetti G
bioRxiv
10.1101/2020.12.14.422634
The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus outbreak continues to spread at a rapid rate worldwide. The main protease (Mpro) is an attractive target for anti-COVID-19 agents. Unfortunately, unexpected difficulties have been encountered in the design of specific inhibitors. Here, by analyzing an ensemble of ~30,000 SARS-CoV-2 Mpro conformations from crystallographic studies and molecular simulations, we show that small structural variations in the binding site dramatically impact ligand binding properties. Hence, traditional druggability indices fail to adequately discriminate between highly and poorly druggable conformations of the binding site. By performing ~200 virtual screenings of compound libraries on selected protein structures, we redefine the protein’s druggability as the consensus chemical space arising from the multiple conformations of the binding site formed upon ligand binding. This procedure revealed a unique SARS-CoV-2 Mpro blueprint that led to a definition of a specific structure-based pharmacophore. The latter explains the poor transferability of potent SARS-CoV Mpro inhibitors to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, despite the identical sequences of the active sites. Importantly, application of the pharmacophore predicted novel high affinity inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, that were validated by in vitro assays performed here and by a newly solved X-ray crystal structure. These results provide a strong basis for effective rational drug design campaigns against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and a new computational approach to screen protein targets with malleable binding sites.
2020-12-15 Simulation results for Sars-CoV2 3C-like main protease: TRAPP analysis of the binding site flexibility and results of the docking study
Tampere M, Pettke A, Salata C, Wallner O, Koolmeister T, [...], Puumalainen MR
Viruses 12 (12) 1423
10.3390/v12121423
2020-12-10
Robertson J, Gostner JM, Nilsson S, Andersson L, Fuchs D, [...], Gisslen M
Infect Dis . 2020 Dec 10;20(1):942. Dec 10; 20 (1) 942
10.1186/s12879-020-05671-7
Background The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is rapidly spreading worldwide. There is limited information about prognostic markers that could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with a poor prognosis. Serum levels of the immune activation marker neopterin has shown to be of prognostic value in patients with SARS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum neopterin is associated with the severity of COVID-19. Methods We included 34 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between March 3 and March 30, 2020. Fifteen patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization, whereas 19 patients developed severe COVID-19 requiring intensive care. Concentrations of serum neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine were measured at and repeatedly after inclusion. Results We found a more than two-fold higher mean concentration of neopterin in severely ill patients (mean value 42.0 nmol/L (SD 18.2)) compared to patients with mild symptoms (16.9 nmol/L (SD 11.0)). All of the severe cases had elevated neopterin concentrations (>9.1 nmol/L) at the initial sampling with values ranging from 17.2 to 86.7 nmol/L. In comparison, 10 of 15 patients with mild disease had neopterin levels above 9.1 nmol/L, with concentrations in the range from 4.9 to 31.6 nmol/L. Neopterin levels gradually decreased during the course of COVID-19, but severe cases maintained elevated levels for a longer period. Moreover, lower levels of tryptophan and higher levels of kynurenine, indicating an increased tryptophan catabolism, were seen in the group with severe cases. Conclusions In conclusion, we found that serum neopterin levels are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that neopterin could be used as a prognostic marker, but further studies are needed to elucidate how it can be used in clinical praxis.
2020-12-10 Available on request
Cagigi A, Yu M, Falck-Jones S, Vangeti S, Österberg B, [...], Smed-Sörensen A
medRxiv
10.1101/2020.11.25.20238592
2020-12-06 Available on request
Nyman E, Lindh M, Lövfors W, Simonsson C, Persson A, [...], Cedersund G
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. 9 (12) 707-717
10.1002/psp4.12568
2020-12-00 Experimental data and data analysis code
Stebbing J, Sánchez Nievas G, Falcone M, Youhanna S, Richardson P, [...], Lauschke VM
Sci Adv 7 (1)
10.1126/sciadv.abe4724
Using AI we identified baricitinib as possessing anti-viral and anti-cytokine efficacy. We now show a 71% (95% CI 0.15-0.58) mortality benefit in 83 patients with moderate-severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with few drug-induced adverse events, including a large elderly cohort (median age 81 years). A further 48 cases with mild-moderate pneumonia recovered uneventfully. Using organotypic 3D cultures of primary human liver cells, we demonstrate that interferon-alpha-2 (IFNα2) significantly increases ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in parenchymal cells by >5-fold. RNA-Seq reveals gene response signatures associated with platelet activation, fully inhibited by baricitinib. Using viral load quantifications and super-resolution microscopy, baricitinib exerts activity rapidly through the inhibition of host proteins (numb associated kinases), uniquely amongst anti-virals. This reveals mechanistic actions of a Janus kinase-1/2 inhibitor targeting viral entry, replication and the cytokine storm, and is associated with beneficial outcomes including in severely ill elderly patients, data that incentivizes further randomized controlled trials.
2020-11-13
Wacker A, Weigand JE, Akabayov SR, Altincekic N, Bains JK, [...], Zetzsche H
Nucleic Acids Res 48 (22) 12415-12435
10.1093/nar/gkaa1013
The current pandemic situation caused by the Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) highlights the need for coordinated research to combat COVID-19. A particularly important aspect is the development of medication. In addition to viral proteins, structured RNA elements represent a potent alternative as drug targets. The search for drugs that target RNA requires their high-resolution structural characterization. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a worldwide consortium of NMR researchers aims to characterize potential RNA drug targets of SCoV2. Here, we report the characterization of 15 conserved RNA elements located at the 5' end, the ribosomal frameshift segment and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the SCoV2 genome, their large-scale production and NMR-based secondary structure determination. The NMR data are corroborated with secondary structure probing by DMS footprinting experiments. The close agreement of NMR secondary structure determination of isolated RNA elements with DMS footprinting and NMR performed on larger RNA regions shows that the secondary structure elements fold independently. The NMR data reported here provide the basis for NMR investigations of RNA function, RNA interactions with viral and host proteins and screening campaigns to identify potential RNA binders for pharmaceutical intervention.
2020-11-10
García M, Kokkinou E, Carrasco García A, Parrot T, Palma Medina LM, [...], Group tKKCS
Clin Transl Immunol 9 (12)
10.1002/cti2.1224
Objectives The role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is unknown. Understanding the immune response in COVID-19 could contribute to unravel the pathogenesis and identification of treatment targets. To describe the phenotypic landscape of circulating ILCs in COVID-19 patients and to identify ILC phenotypes correlated to serum biomarkers, clinical markers, and laboratory parameters relevant in COVID-19. Methods Blood samples collected from moderately (n=11) and severely ill (n=12) COVID-19 patients as well as healthy control donors (n=16), were analyzed with 18-parameter flow cytometry. Using supervised and unsupervised approaches, we examined the ILC activation status and homing profile. Clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained from all COVID-19 patients and serum biomarkers were analyzed with multiplex immunoassays. Results ILCs were largely depleted from the circulation of COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. Remaining circulating ILCs from patients revealed increased frequencies of ILC2 in moderate COVID-19, with a concomitant decrease of ILC precursors (ILCp), as compared with controls. ILC2 and ILCp showed an activated phenotype with increased CD69 expression, whereas expression levels of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR4 were significantly altered in ILC2 and ILCp, and ILC1, respectively. The activated ILC profile of COVID-19 patients was associated with soluble inflammatory markers, while frequencies of ILC subsets were correlated with laboratory parameters that reflect the disease severity. Conclusion This study provides insights into the potential role of ILCs in immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, particularly linked to the severity of COVID-19.
2020-11-04 Karolinska KI/K Covid19 Immune atlas
Custódio TF, Das H, Sheward DJ, Hanke L, Pazicky S, [...], Löw C
Nat Commun 11 (1)
10.1038/s41467-020-19204-y
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic neutralizing antibodies constitute a key short-to-medium term approach to tackle COVID-19. However, traditional antibody production is hampered by long development times and costly production. Here, we report the rapid isolation and characterization of nanobodies from a synthetic library, known as sybodies (Sb), that target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Several binders with low nanomolar affinities and efficient neutralization activity were identified of which Sb23 displayed high affinity and neutralized pseudovirus with an IC50 of 0.6 µg/ml. A cryo-EM structure of the spike bound to Sb23 showed that Sb23 binds competitively in the ACE2 binding site. Furthermore, the cryo-EM reconstruction revealed an unusual conformation of the spike where two RBDs are in the ‘up’ ACE2-binding conformation. The combined approach represents an alternative, fast workflow to select binders with neutralizing activity against newly emerging viruses.
2020-11-04
Marklund E, Leach S, Axelsson H, Nyström K, Norder H, [...], Gisslén M
PLoS One 15 (10) e0241104
10.1371/journal.pone.0241104
To accurately interpret COVID-19 seroprevalence surveys, knowledge of serum-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 with a better understanding of patients who do not seroconvert, is imperative. This study aimed to describe serum-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of patients with both severe and mild COVID-19, including extended studies of patients who remained seronegative more than 90 days post symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody levels were quantified using two clinically validated and widely used commercial serological assays (Architect, Abbott Laboratories and iFlash 1800, YHLO), detecting antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Forty-seven patients (mean age 49 years, 38% female) were included. All (15/15) patients with severe symptoms and 29/32 (90.6%) patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 developed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in serum. Time to seroconversion was significantly shorter (median 11 vs. 22 days, P = 0.04) in patients with severe compared to mild symptoms. Of the three patients without detectable IgG-responses after >90 days, all had detectable virus-neutralizing antibodies and in two, spike-protein receptor binding domain-specific IgG was detected with an in-house assay. Antibody titers were preserved during follow-up and all patients who seroconverted, irrespective of the severity of symptoms, still had detectable IgG levels >75 days post symptom onset. Patients with severe COVID-19 both seroconvert earlier and develop higher concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG than patients with mild symptoms. Of those patients who not develop detectable IgG antibodies, all have detectable virus-neutralizing antibodies, suggesting immunity. Our results showing that not all COVID-19 patients develop detectable IgG using two validated commercial clinical methods, even over time, are vital for the interpretation of COVID-19 seroprevalence surveys.
2020-10-21 Raw data
Castro Dopico X, Hanke L, Sheward DJ, Muschiol S, Aleman S, [...], Karlsson Hedestam GB
medRxiv
10.1101/2020.07.17.20155937
Serology is critical for understanding pathogen-specific immune responses, but is fraught with difficulty, not least because the strength of antibody (Ab) response varies greatly between individuals and mild infections generally generate lower Ab titers (1-3). We used robust IgM, IgG and IgA Ab tests to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in individuals PCR+ for virus RNA (n=105) representing different categories of disease severity, including mild cases. All PCR+ individuals in the study became IgG-positive against pre-fusion trimers of the virus spike (S) glycoprotein, but titers varied greatly. Elevated IgA, IL-6 and neutralizing responses were present in intensive care patients. Additionally, blood donors and pregnant women (n=2,900) sampled throughout the first wave of the pandemic in Stockholm, Sweden, further demonstrated that anti-S IgG titers differed several orders of magnitude between individuals, with an increase of low titer values present in the population at later time points (4,5). To improve upon current methods to identify low titers and extend the utility of individual measures (6,7), we used our PCR+ individual data to train machine learning algorithms to assign likelihood of past infection. Using these tools that assigned probability to individual responses against S and the receptor binding domain (RBD), we report SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG in 13.7% of healthy donors five months after the peak of spring COVID-19 deaths, when mortality and ICU occupancy in the country due to the virus were at low levels. These data further our understanding of antibody responses to the virus and provide solutions to problems in serology data analysis.
2020-10-19 Inferring seroprevalence from ELISA data, without choosing a cutoff
Frithiof R, Bergqvist A, Järhult JD, Lipcsey M, Hultström M
Crit Care 24 (1) 587
10.1186/s13054-020-03302-w
2020-09-29 Available on request
Kanberg N, Ashton NJ, Andersson LM, Yilmaz A, Lindh M, [...], Gisslén M
Neurology 95 (12) e1754-e1759
10.1212/WNL.0000000000010111
To test the hypothesis that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has an impact on the CNS by measuring plasma biomarkers of CNS injury. We recruited 47 patients with mild (n = 20), moderate (n = 9), or severe (n = 18) COVID-19 and measured 2 plasma biomarkers of CNS injury by single molecule array, neurofilament light chain protein (NfL; a marker of intra-axonal neuronal injury) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp; a marker of astrocytic activation/injury), in samples collected at presentation and again in a subset after a mean of 11.4 days. Cross-sectional results were compared with results from 33 age-matched controls derived from an independent cohort. The patients with severe COVID-19 had higher plasma concentrations of GFAp ( p = 0.001) and NfL (p < 0.001) than controls, while GFAp was also increased in patients with moderate disease (p = 0.03). In patients with severe disease, an early peak in plasma GFAp decreased on follow-up (p < 0.01), while NfL showed a sustained increase from first to last follow-up (p < 0.01), perhaps reflecting a sequence of early astrocytic response and more delayed axonal injury. We show neurochemical evidence of neuronal injury and glial activation in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the frequency and nature of COVID-19-related CNS damage and its relation to both clinically defined CNS events such as hypoxic and ischemic events and mechanisms more closely linked to systemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and consequent immune activation, as well as to evaluate the clinical utility of monitoring plasma NfL and GFAp in the management of this group of patients.
2020-09-22 Researchers can apply for access to anonymized data
Bryant P, Elofsson A
PeerJ 8 e9879
10.7717/peerj.9879
As governments across Europe have issued non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and school closing, the mobility patterns in these countries have changed. Most states have implemented similar NPIs at similar time points. However, it is likely different countries and populations respond differently to the NPIs and that these differences cause mobility patterns and thereby the epidemic development to change. We build a Bayesian model that estimates the number of deaths on a given day dependent on changes in the basic reproductive number, R0, due to differences in mobility patterns. We utilise mobility data from Google mobility reports using five different categories: retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, transit stations, workplace and residential. The importance of each mobility category for predicting changes in R0 is estimated through the model. The changes in mobility have a considerable overlap with the introduction of governmental NPIs, highlighting the importance of government action for population behavioural change. The shift in mobility in all categories shows high correlations with the death rates 1 month later. Reduction of movement within the grocery and pharmacy sector is estimated to account for most of the decrease in R0. Our model predicts 3-week epidemic forecasts, using real-time observations of changes in mobility patterns, which can provide governments with direct feedback on the effects of their NPIs. The model predicts the changes in a majority of the countries accurately but overestimates the impact of NPIs in Sweden and Denmark and underestimates them in France and Belgium. We also note that the exponential nature of all epidemiological models based on the basic reproductive number, R0 cause small errors to have extensive effects on the predicted outcome.
2020-09-15 Modelling code and data
Ling J, Hickman RA, Li J, Lu X, Lindahl JF, [...], Järhult JD
Viruses 12 (9)
10.3390/v12091026
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus evolved, and we therefore aimed to provide an insight into which genetic variants were enriched, and how they spread in Sweden. We analyzed 348 Swedish SARS-CoV-2 sequences freely available from GISAID obtained from 7 February 2020 until 14 May 2020. We identified 14 variant sites ≥5% frequency in the population. Among those sites, the D936Y substitution in the viral Spike protein was under positive selection. The variant sites can distinguish 11 mutational profiles in Sweden. Nine of the profiles appeared in Stockholm in March 2020. Mutational profiles 3 (B.1.1) and 6 (B.1), which contain the D936Y mutation, became the predominant profiles over time, spreading from Stockholm to other Swedish regions during April and the beginning of May. Furthermore, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicated that SARS-CoV-2 could have emerged in Sweden on 27 December 2019, and community transmission started on February 1st with an evolutionary rate of 1.5425 × 10 -3 substitutions per year. Our study provides novel knowledge on the spatio-temporal dynamics of Swedish SARS-CoV-2 variants during the early pandemic. Characterization of these viral variants can provide precious insights on viral pathogenesis and can be valuable for diagnostic and drug development approaches.
2020-09-14 Spatial temporal appearance of each variant and their mutation profile and clade information; Other supplementary materials.
Bortz RH, Florez C, Laudermilch E, Wirchnianski AS, Lasso G, [...], Chandran K
medRxiv
10.1101/2020.09.10.20192187
The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and healthcare systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serologic testing to determine the community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior infection or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood samples with high sensitivity and specificity. We further show that this test affords the estimation of viral spike-specific IgG titers from a single sample measurement, thereby providing a simple and scalable method to measure the strength of an individual's immune response. The accuracy, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of this test makes it an excellent option for clinical deployment in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
2020-09-11 Available on request
Hanke L, Vidakovics Perez L, Sheward DJ, Das H, Schulte T, [...], McInerney GM
Nat Commun 11 (1) 4420
10.1038/s41467-020-18174-5
SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through an interaction between the spike glycoprotein and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Directly preventing this interaction presents an attractive possibility for suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an alpaca-derived single domain antibody fragment, Ty1, that specifically targets the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, directly preventing ACE2 engagement. Ty1 binds the RBD with high affinity, occluding ACE2. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the bound complex at 2.9 Å resolution reveals that Ty1 binds to an epitope on the RBD accessible in both the 'up' and 'down' conformations, sterically hindering RBD-ACE2 binding. While fusion to an Fc domain renders Ty1 extremely potent, Ty1 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus as a 12.8 kDa nanobody, which can be expressed in high quantities in bacteria, presenting opportunities for manufacturing at scale. Ty1 is therefore an excellent candidate as an intervention against COVID-19.
2020-09-04
Maucourant C, Filipovic I, Ponzetta A, Aleman S, Cornillet M, [...], Karolinska COVID-19 Study Group
Sci Immunol 5 (50)
10.1126/sciimmunol.abd6832
Understanding innate immune responses in COVID-19 is important to decipher mechanisms of host responses and interpret disease pathogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes that respond to acute viral infections but might also contribute to immunopathology. Using 28-color flow cytometry, we here reveal strong NK cell activation across distinct subsets in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. This pattern was mirrored in scRNA-seq signatures of NK cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from COVID-19 patients. Unsupervised high-dimensional analysis of peripheral blood NK cells furthermore identified distinct NK cell immunotypes that were linked to disease severity. Hallmarks of these immunotypes were high expression of perforin, NKG2C, and Ksp37, reflecting increased presence of adaptive NK cells in circulation of patients with severe disease. Finally, arming of CD56 bright NK cells was observed across COVID-19 disease states, driven by a defined protein-protein interaction network of inflammatory soluble factors. This study provides a detailed map of the NK cell activation landscape in COVID-19 disease.
2020-08-21
Hultström M, von Seth M, Frithiof R
J Hypertens 38 (8) 1613-1614
10.1097/HJH.0000000000002531
No abstract available
2020-08-00 Provided in the article: biochemistry of patients in intensive care (N=9)
Pang J, Xu F, Aondio G, Li Y, Fumagalli A, [...], Cao Y
Nat Commun 12 (1) 814
10.1038/s41467-021-21085-8
On the basis of Covid-19-induced pulmonary pathological and vascular changes, we hypothesize that the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug bevacizumab might be beneficial for treating Covid-19 patients. From Feb 15 to April 5, 2020, we conducted a single-arm trial (NCT04275414) and recruited 26 patients from 2-centers (China and Italy) with severe Covid-19, with respiratory rate ≥30 times/min, oxygen saturation ≤93% with ambient air, or partial arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspiration O 2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) >100 mmHg and ≤300 mmHg, and diffuse pneumonia confirmed by chest imaging. Followed up for 28 days. Among these, bevacizumab plus standard care markedly improves the PaO2/FiO2 ratios at days 1 and 7. By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. Significant reduction of lesion areas/ratios are shown in chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray within 7 days. Of 14 patients with fever, body temperature normalizes within 72 h in 13 (93%) patients. Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration. Our findings suggest bevacizumab plus standard care is highly beneficial for patients with severe Covid-19. Randomized controlled trial is warranted.
2020-07-29
Monteil V, Kwon H, Prado P, Hagelkrüys A, Wimmer RA, [...], Penninger JM
Cell 181 (4) 905-913.e7
10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004
We have previously provided the first genetic evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and ACE2 protects the lung from injury, providing a molecular explanation for the severe lung failure and death due to SARS-CoV infections. ACE2 has now also been identified as a key receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and it has been proposed that inhibiting this interaction might be used in treating patients with COVID-19. However, it is not known whether human recombinant soluble ACE2 (hrsACE2) blocks growth of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we show that clinical grade hrsACE2 reduced SARS-CoV-2 recovery from Vero cells by a factor of 1,000-5,000. An equivalent mouse rsACE2 had no effect. We also show that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect engineered human blood vessel organoids and human kidney organoids, which can be inhibited by hrsACE2. These data demonstrate that hrsACE2 can significantly block early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
2020-05-14