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Genomics & transcriptomics data

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Published Data

Data available on the European COVID-19 Data Portal

Published raw and assembled sequences related to the COVID-19 outbreak, including outbreak isolates and records relating to coronavirus biology:

Data available from research groups in Sweden

The list below is curated manually and as such may not be exhaustive. If you would like to see your dataset here or correct information about your dataset, please get in touch with us. Projects sharing data where at least one author has an affiliation with a Swedish research institute are included. At this point, projects which share data openly or which explicitly promise to share data on request are included in this section. In the near future, only projects that either share data openly or have at least a metadata-only record with a clear data access procedure will be included.

Last updated: 2021-04-13

Project Last updated Available data
Manisty C, Treibel TA, Jensen M, Semper A, Joy G, [...], Moon JC
EBioMedicine 65 103259
SARS-CoV-2 serology is used to identify prior infection at individual and at population level. Extended longitudinal studies with multi-timepoint sampling to evaluate dynamic changes in antibody levels are required to identify the time horizon in which these applications of serology are valid, and to explore the longevity of protective humoral immunity. Healthcare workers were recruited to a prospective cohort study from the first SARS-CoV-2 epidemic peak in London, undergoing weekly symptom screen, viral PCR and blood sampling over 16-21 weeks. Serological analysis (n =12,990) was performed using semi-quantitative Euroimmun IgG to viral spike S1 domain and Roche total antibody to viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) assays. Comparisons were made to pseudovirus neutralizing antibody measurements. A total of 157/729 (21.5%) participants developed positive SARS-CoV-2 serology by one or other assay, of whom 31.0% were asymptomatic and there were no deaths. Peak Euroimmun anti-S1 and Roche anti-NP measurements correlated (r = 0.57, p<0.0001) but only anti-S1 measurements correlated with near-contemporary pseudovirus neutralising antibody titres (measured at 16-18 weeks, r = 0.57, p<0.0001). By 21 weeks' follow-up, 31/143 (21.7%) anti-S1 and 6/150 (4.0%) anti-NP measurements reverted to negative. Mathematical modelling revealed faster clearance of anti-S1 compared to anti-NP (median half-life of 2.5 weeks versus 4.0 weeks), earlier transition to lower levels of antibody production (median of 8 versus 13 weeks), and greater reductions in relative antibody production rate after the transition (median of 35% versus 50%). Mild SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with heterogeneous serological responses in Euroimmun anti-S1 and Roche anti-NP assays. Anti-S1 responses showed faster rates of clearance, more rapid transition from high to low level production rate and greater reduction in production rate after this transition. In mild infection, anti-S1 serology alone may underestimate incident infections. The mechanisms that underpin faster clearance and lower rates of sustained anti-S1 production may impact on the longevity of humoral immunity. Charitable donations via Barts Charity, Wellcome Trust, NIHR.
2021-03-01 Applications for access to the individual participant de-identified data (including data dictionaries) and samples can be made to the access committee
Fadista J, Kraven LM, Karjalainen J, Andrews SJ, Geller F, [...], None
EBioMedicine 65 103277
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease, characterized by progressive lung scarring. Severe COVID-19 is associated with substantial pneumonitis and has a number of shared major risk factors with IPF. This study aimed to determine the genetic correlation between IPF and severe COVID-19 and assess a potential causal role of genetically increased risk of IPF on COVID-19 severity. The genetic correlation between IPF and COVID-19 severity was estimated with linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression. We performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) study for IPF causality in COVID-19. Genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility (P<5 × 10 -8) in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used as instrumental variables (IVs). Effect estimates of those IVs on COVID-19 severity were gathered from the GWAS meta-analysis by the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (4,336 cases & 623,902 controls). We detected a positive genetic correlation of IPF with COVID-19 severity (rg=0·31 [95% CI 0·04-0·57], P = 0·023). The MR estimates for severe COVID-19 did not reveal any genetic association (OR 1·05, [95% CI 0·92-1·20], P = 0·43). However, outlier analysis revealed that the IPF risk allele rs35705950 at MUC5B had a different effect compared with the other variants. When rs35705950 was excluded, MR results provided evidence that genetically increased risk of IPF has a causal effect on COVID-19 severity (OR 1·21, [95% CI 1·06-1·38], P = 4·24 × 10 -3). Furthermore, the IPF risk-allele at MUC5B showed an apparent protective effect against COVID-19 hospitalization only in older adults (OR 0·86, [95% CI 0·73-1·00], P = 2·99 × 10-2) . The strongest genetic determinant of IPF, rs35705950 at MUC5B, seems to confer protection against COVID-19, whereas the combined effect of all other IPF risk loci seem to confer risk of COVID-19 severity. The observed effect of rs35705950 could either be due to protective effects of mucin over-production on the airways or a consequence of selection bias due to (1) a patient group that is heavily enriched for the rs35705950 T undertaking strict self-isolation and/or (2) due to survival bias of the rs35705950 non-IPF risk allele carriers. Due to the diverse impact of IPF causal variants on SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a possible selection bias as an explanation, further investigation is needed to address this apparent paradox between variance at MUC5B and other IPF genetic risk factors. Novo Nordisk Foundation and Oak Foundation.
Tampere M, Pettke A, Salata C, Wallner O, Koolmeister T, [...], Puumalainen MR
Viruses 12 (12) 1423
Zeng HL, Dichio V, Rodríguez Horta E, Thorell K, Aurell E
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 202012331
2020-11-17 Supplementary material
Elofsson A, Bryant P
Background When modelling the dispersion of an epidemic using R0, one only considers the average number of individuals each infected individual will infect. However, we know from extensive studies of social networks that there is significant variation in the number of connections and thus social contacts each individual has. Individuals with more social contacts are more likely to attract and spread infection. These individuals are likely the drivers of the epidemic, so-called superspreaders. When many superspreaders are immune, it becomes more difficult for the disease to spread, as the connectedness of the social network dramatically decreases. If one assumes all individuals being equally connected and thus as likely to spread disease as in a SIR model, this is not true. Methods To account for the impact of social network structure on epidemic development, we model the dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 on a dynamic preferential attachment graph which changes appearance proportional to observed mobility changes. We sample a serial interval distribution that determines the probability of dispersion for all infected nodes each day. We model the dispersion in different age groups using age-specific infection fatality rates. We vary the infection probabilities in different age groups and analyse the outcome. Results The impact of movement on network dynamics plays a crucial role in the spread of infections. We find that higher movement results in higher spread due to an increased probability of new connections being made within a social network. We show that saturation in the dispersion can be reached much earlier on a preferential attachment graph compared to spread on a random graph, which is more similar to estimations using R0. Conclusions We provide a novel method for modelling epidemics by using a dynamic network structure related to observed mobility changes. The social network structure plays a crucial role in epidemic development, something that is often overlooked.
2020-11-17 Code for modelling the spread of COVID-19 on a dynamic social network with spread reduction according to Google mobility changes
Bastard P, Rosen LB, Zhang Q, Michailidis E, Hoffmann H, [...], Casanova J
Science 370 (6515)
Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.
Zhang Q, Bastard P, Liu Z, Le Pen J, Moncada-Velez M, [...], Casanova J
Science 370 (6515) eabd4570
Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia relative to 534 subjects with asymptomatic or benign infection. By testing these and other rare variants at these 13 loci, we experimentally defined LOF variants underlying autosomal-recessive or autosomal-dominant deficiencies in 23 patients (3.5%) 17 to 77 years of age. We show that human fibroblasts with mutations affecting this circuit are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Inborn errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN immunity can underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with no prior severe infection.
Edén A, Kanberg N, Gostner J, Fuchs D, Hagberg L, [...], Gisslén M
Neurology 96 (2) e294-e300
To explore whether hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 and neurologic symptoms have evidence of CNS infection, inflammation and injury using CSF biomarker measurements. We assessed CSF SARS-CoV-2 RNA along with CSF biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation (CSF white blood cell count, neopterin, β 2-microglobulin (β2M) and immunoglobulin G-index), blood-brain-barrier (BBB) integrity (albumin ratio), and axonal injury (CSF neurofilament light chain protein [NfL]) in 6 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms who had undergone a diagnostic lumbar puncture. Neurologic symptoms and signs included features of encephalopathies (4/6), suspected meningitis (1/6) and dysgeusia (1/6). SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by rtPCR analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the plasma of 2 patients (Cycle threshold [Ct] value 35.0-37.0) and in CSF at low levels (Ct 37.2, 38.0, 39.0) in 3 patients in one but not in a second rtPCR assay. CSF neopterin (median, 43.0 nmol/L) and β 2-microglobulin (median, 3.1 mg/L) were increased in all. Median IgG-index (0.39), albumin ratio (5.35) and CSF white blood cell count (<3 cells/µL) were normal in all, while CSF NfL was elevated in 2 patients. Our results on patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms suggest an unusual pattern of marked CSF inflammation in which soluble markers were increased but white cell response and other immunologic features typical of CNS viral infections were absent. While our initial hypothesis centered on CNS SARS-CoV-2 invasion, we could not convincingly detect SARS-CoV-2 as the underlying driver of CNS inflammation. These features distinguish COVID-19 CSF from other viral CNS infections, and raise fundamental questions about the CNS pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
2020-10-01 Researchers can apply for access to anonymized data
Sekine T, Perez-Potti A, Rivera-Ballesteros O, Strålin K, Gorin J, [...], Buggert M
Cell 183 (1) 158-168.e14
SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells will likely prove critical for long-term immune protection against COVID-19. Here, we systematically mapped the functional and phenotypic landscape of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in unexposed individuals, exposed family members, and individuals with acute or convalescent COVID-19. Acute-phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells displayed a highly activated cytotoxic phenotype that correlated with various clinical markers of disease severity, whereas convalescent-phase SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were polyfunctional and displayed a stem-like memory phenotype. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detectable in antibody-seronegative exposed family members and convalescent individuals with a history of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. Our collective dataset shows that SARS-CoV-2 elicits broadly directed and functionally replete memory T cell responses, suggesting that natural exposure or infection may prevent recurrent episodes of severe COVID-19.
Parrot T, Gorin J, Ponzetta A, Maleki KT, Kammann T, [...], Sandberg JK
Sci Immunol 5 (51)
Severe COVID-19 is characterized by excessive inflammation of the lower airways. The balance of protective versus pathological immune responses in COVID-19 is incompletely understood. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are antimicrobial T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, and can also function as innate-like sensors and mediators of antiviral responses. Here, we investigated the MAIT cell compartment in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease, as well as in convalescence. We show profound and preferential decline in MAIT cells in the circulation of patients with active disease paired with strong activation. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses indicated significant MAIT cell enrichment and pro-inflammatory IL-17A bias in the airways. Unsupervised analysis identified MAIT cell CD69 high and CXCR3low immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcome. MAIT cell levels normalized in the convalescent phase, consistent with dynamic recruitment to the tissues and later release back into the circulation when disease is resolved. These findings indicate that MAIT cells are engaged in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible involvement in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.
2020-09-28 Karolinska KI/K Covid19 Immune atlas
Hellman U, Karlsson MG, Engström-Laurent A, Cajander S, Dorofte L, [...], Blomberg A
J Biol Chem 295 (45) 15418-15422
Severe corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by inflammation of the lungs with increasing respiratory impairment. In fatal Covid-19, lungs at autopsy have been filled with a clear liquid jelly. However, the nature of this finding has not yet been determined.The aim of the study was to demonstrate if the lungs of fatal Covid-19 contain hyaluronan as it is associated with inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may have the appearance of liquid jelly.Lung tissue obtained at autopsy from three deceased Covid-19 patients was processed for hyaluronan histochemistry using a direct staining method and compared with staining in normal lung tissue.Stainings confirmed that hyaluronan is obstructing alveoli with presence in exudate and plugs, as well as in thickened perialveolar interstitium. In contrast, normal lungs only showed hyaluronan in intact alveolar walls and perivascular tissue. This is the first study to confirm prominent hyaluronan exudates in the alveolar spaces of Covid-19 lungs, supporting the notion that the macromolecule is involved in ARDS caused by SARS-CoV-2. The present finding may open up for new treatment options in severe Covid-19, aiming at reducing the presence and production of hyaluronan in the lungs.
2020-09-25 Provided in the article: color light micrographs of autopsy lung tissue from the three Covid-19 cases
Glans H, Gredmark-Russ S, Olausson M, Falck-Jones S, Varnaite R, [...], Brave A
To understand the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized COVID-19 patients we simultaneously assessed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, live infectious virus in the airways, and virus-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in sera in 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 could be cultured from four patients, all with low or undetectable antibody response. Our data suggests that the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may correlate to risk for shedding live SARS-CoV-2 virus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
2020-09-13 Available on request
Consiglio CR, Cotugno N, Sardh F, Pou C, Amodio D, [...], Brodin P
Cell 183 (4) 968-981.e7
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is typically very mild and often asymptomatic in children. A complication is the rare multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, presenting 4-6 weeks after infection as high fever, organ dysfunction, and strongly elevated markers of inflammation. The pathogenesis is unclear but has overlapping features with Kawasaki disease suggestive of vasculitis and a likely autoimmune etiology. We apply systems-level analyses of blood immune cells, cytokines, and autoantibodies in healthy children, children with Kawasaki disease enrolled prior to COVID-19, children infected with SARS-CoV-2, and children presenting with MIS-C. We find that the inflammatory response in MIS-C differs from the cytokine storm of severe acute COVID-19, shares several features with Kawasaki disease, but also differs from this condition with respect to T cell subsets, interleukin (IL)-17A, and biomarkers associated with arterial damage. Finally, autoantibody profiling suggests multiple autoantibodies that could be involved in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.
Soratto TAT, Darban H, Bjerkner A, Coorens M, Albert J, [...], Andersson B
Microbiol Resour Announc 9 (35)
2020-08-27 ENA PRJEB39632: SARS-CoV-2 genomes from late April in Stockholm, Sweden
Maucourant C, Filipovic I, Ponzetta A, Aleman S, Cornillet M, [...], Karolinska COVID-19 Study Group
Sci Immunol 5 (50)
Understanding innate immune responses in COVID-19 is important to decipher mechanisms of host responses and interpret disease pathogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes that respond to acute viral infections but might also contribute to immunopathology. Using 28-color flow cytometry, we here reveal strong NK cell activation across distinct subsets in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. This pattern was mirrored in scRNA-seq signatures of NK cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from COVID-19 patients. Unsupervised high-dimensional analysis of peripheral blood NK cells furthermore identified distinct NK cell immunotypes that were linked to disease severity. Hallmarks of these immunotypes were high expression of perforin, NKG2C, and Ksp37, reflecting increased presence of adaptive NK cells in circulation of patients with severe disease. Finally, arming of CD56 bright NK cells was observed across COVID-19 disease states, driven by a defined protein-protein interaction network of inflammatory soluble factors. This study provides a detailed map of the NK cell activation landscape in COVID-19 disease.