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Data available from Swedish public agencies and large data produces

Data available from research groups in Sweden

Note that the lists of available data from research groups in Sweden are curated manually and as such may not be exhaustive. If you would like to see your dataset here or correct information about your dataset, please get in touch with us. Last updated: 2020-11-10.
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Health data (19)
Project Last updated Available data
Marklund E, Leach S, Axelsson H, Nyström K, Norder H, [...], Gisslén M
PLoS One 15 (10)  e0241104
To accurately interpret COVID-19 seroprevalence surveys, knowledge of serum-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 with a better understanding of patients who do not seroconvert, is imperative. This study aimed to describe serum-IgG responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of patients with both severe and mild COVID-19, including extended studies of patients who remained seronegative more than 90 days post symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody levels were quantified using two clinically validated and widely used commercial serological assays (Architect, Abbott Laboratories and iFlash 1800, YHLO), detecting antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Forty-seven patients (mean age 49 years, 38% female) were included. All (15/15) patients with severe symptoms and 29/32 (90.6%) patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 developed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in serum. Time to seroconversion was significantly shorter (median 11 vs. 22 days, P = 0.04) in patients with severe compared to mild symptoms. Of the three patients without detectable IgG-responses after >90 days, all had detectable virus-neutralizing antibodies and in two, spike-protein receptor binding domain-specific IgG was detected with an in-house assay. Antibody titers were preserved during follow-up and all patients who seroconverted, irrespective of the severity of symptoms, still had detectable IgG levels >75 days post symptom onset. Patients with severe COVID-19 both seroconvert earlier and develop higher concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG than patients with mild symptoms. Of those patients who not develop detectable IgG antibodies, all have detectable virus-neutralizing antibodies, suggesting immunity. Our results showing that not all COVID-19 patients develop detectable IgG using two validated commercial clinical methods, even over time, are vital for the interpretation of COVID-19 seroprevalence surveys.
2020-10-21 Raw data
Castro Dopico X, Hanke L, Sheward DJ, Muschiol S, Aleman S, [...], Karlsson Hedestam GB
[preprint]  medRxiv  
Serology is critical for understanding pathogen-specific immune responses, but is fraught with difficulty, not least because the strength of antibody (Ab) response varies greatly between individuals and mild infections generally generate lower Ab titers (1-3). We used robust IgM, IgG and IgA Ab tests to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in individuals PCR+ for virus RNA (n=105) representing different categories of disease severity, including mild cases. All PCR+ individuals in the study became IgG-positive against pre-fusion trimers of the virus spike (S) glycoprotein, but titers varied greatly. Elevated IgA, IL-6 and neutralizing responses were present in intensive care patients. Additionally, blood donors and pregnant women (n=2,900) sampled throughout the first wave of the pandemic in Stockholm, Sweden, further demonstrated that anti-S IgG titers differed several orders of magnitude between individuals, with an increase of low titer values present in the population at later time points (4,5). To improve upon current methods to identify low titers and extend the utility of individual measures (6,7), we used our PCR+ individual data to train machine learning algorithms to assign likelihood of past infection. Using these tools that assigned probability to individual responses against S and the receptor binding domain (RBD), we report SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG in 13.7% of healthy donors five months after the peak of spring COVID-19 deaths, when mortality and ICU occupancy in the country due to the virus were at low levels. These data further our understanding of antibody responses to the virus and provide solutions to problems in serology data analysis.
2020-10-19 Inferring seroprevalence from ELISA data, without choosing a cutoff
Rudberg A, Havervall S, Månberg A, Jernbom Falk A, Aguilera K, [...], Thålin C
Nat Commun 11 (1)  5064
SARS-CoV-2 may pose an occupational health risk to healthcare workers. Here, we report the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, self-reported symptoms and occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers at a large acute care hospital in Sweden. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was 19.1% among the 2149 healthcare workers recruited between April 14th and May 8th 2020, which was higher than the reported regional seroprevalence during the same time period. Symptoms associated with seroprevalence were anosmia (odds ratio (OR) 28.4, 95% CI 20.6-39.5) and ageusia (OR 19.2, 95% CI 14.3-26.1). Seroprevalence was also associated with patient contact (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5) and covid-19 patient contact (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.2-5.3). These findings imply an occupational risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. Continued measures are warranted to assure healthcare workers safety and reduce transmission from healthcare workers to patients and to the community.
2020-10-08 Data available upon request and collaboration inquiries welcome.
Parrot T, Gorin JB, Ponzetta A, Maleki KT, Kammann T, [...], Sandberg JK
Sci Immunol 5 (51) 
Severe COVID-19 is characterized by excessive inflammation of the lower airways. The balance of protective versus pathological immune responses in COVID-19 is incompletely understood. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are antimicrobial T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, and can also function as innate-like sensors and mediators of antiviral responses. Here, we investigated the MAIT cell compartment in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease, as well as in convalescence. We show profound and preferential decline in MAIT cells in the circulation of patients with active disease paired with strong activation. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses indicated significant MAIT cell enrichment and pro-inflammatory IL-17A bias in the airways. Unsupervised analysis identified MAIT cell CD69 high and CXCR3low immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcome. MAIT cell levels normalized in the convalescent phase, consistent with dynamic recruitment to the tissues and later release back into the circulation when disease is resolved. These findings indicate that MAIT cells are engaged in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible involvement in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.
2020-09-28 Raw data file
Jonmarker S, Hollenberg J, Dahlberg M, Stackelberg O, Litorell J, [...], Cronhjort M
[preprint]  medRxiv
Background: A substantial proportion of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop thromboembolic complications, but it is unclear whether higher doses of thromboprophylaxis are associated with lower mortality rates. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of initial dosing strategy of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of death, thromboembolism, and bleeding. Method: All critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to two intensive care units in March and April 2020 were eligible. Patients were categorized into three groups according to initial daily dose of thromboprophylaxis: low (2500−4500 IU tinzaparin or 2500−5000 IU dalteparin), medium (>4500 IU but <175 IU/kilogram, kg, of body weight tinzaparin or >5000 IU but <200 IU/kg of body weight dalteparin), and high dose (≥ 175 IU/kg of body weight tinzaparin or ≥200 IU/kg of body weight dalteparin). Thromboprophylaxis dosage was based on local standardized recommendations, not on degree of critical illness or risk of thrombosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals of death within 28 days from ICU admission. Multivariable models were adjusted for sex, age, body-mass index, Simplified Acute Physiology Score III, invasive respiratory support, and initial dosing strategy of thromboprophylaxis. Results: A total of 152 patients were included; 67 received low, 48 medium, and 37 high dose thromboprophylaxis. Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. Mortality was lower in high (13.5%) vs medium (25.0%) and low dose thromboprophylaxis (38.8%) groups, p≡0.02. The hazard ratio of death was 0.33 (95% confidence intervals 0.13 − 0.87) among those who received high dose, respectively 0.88 (95% confidence intervals 0.43 − 1.83) among those who received medium dose, as compared with those who received low dose thromboprophylaxis. There were fewer thromboembolic events in the high (2.7%) vs medium (18.8%) and low dose thromboprophylaxis (17.9%) groups, p≡0.04, but no difference in the proportion of bleeding events, p≡0.16. Conclusions: Among critically ill COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure, high dose thromboprophylaxis was associated with a lower risk of death and a lower cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events compared with lower doses.
2020-09-23 Available on request due to privacy restrictions
Dillner J, Elfström M, Blomqvist J, Eklund C, Lagheden C, [...], Conneryd Lundgren K
[preprint]  medRxiv  
Background: The extent that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 may protect against future virus-associated disease is unknown. Method: We analyzed 12928 healthy hospital employees for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and compared results to participant sick leave records (Clinical trial registration: NCT04411576). Results: Subjects with viral serum antibodies were not at excess risk for future sick leave (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.85 (0.43-1.68)). By contrast, subjects with antibodies had an excess risk for sick leave in the past weeks (OR: 3.34 (2.98-3.74)). Conclusion: Presence of viral antibodies marks past disease and protection against excess risk of future disease.
2020-09-18 Pseudonymised, individual-level data available on request.
Bryant P, Elofsson A
PeerJ 8  e9879
As governments across Europe have issued non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and school closing, the mobility patterns in these countries have changed. Most states have implemented similar NPIs at similar time points. However, it is likely different countries and populations respond differently to the NPIs and that these differences cause mobility patterns and thereby the epidemic development to change. We build a Bayesian model that estimates the number of deaths on a given day dependent on changes in the basic reproductive number, R0, due to differences in mobility patterns. We utilise mobility data from Google mobility reports using five different categories: retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, transit stations, workplace and residential. The importance of each mobility category for predicting changes in R0 is estimated through the model. The changes in mobility have a considerable overlap with the introduction of governmental NPIs, highlighting the importance of government action for population behavioural change. The shift in mobility in all categories shows high correlations with the death rates 1 month later. Reduction of movement within the grocery and pharmacy sector is estimated to account for most of the decrease in R0. Our model predicts 3-week epidemic forecasts, using real-time observations of changes in mobility patterns, which can provide governments with direct feedback on the effects of their NPIs. The model predicts the changes in a majority of the countries accurately but overestimates the impact of NPIs in Sweden and Denmark and underestimates them in France and Belgium. We also note that the exponential nature of all epidemiological models based on the basic reproductive number, R0 cause small errors to have extensive effects on the predicted outcome.
2020-09-15 Modelling code and data
Ling J, Hickman RA, Li J, Lu X, Lindahl JF, [...], Järhult JD
Viruses 12 (9) 
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus evolved, and we therefore aimed to provide an insight into which genetic variants were enriched, and how they spread in Sweden. We analyzed 348 Swedish SARS-CoV-2 sequences freely available from GISAID obtained from 7 February 2020 until 14 May 2020. We identified 14 variant sites ≥5% frequency in the population. Among those sites, the D936Y substitution in the viral Spike protein was under positive selection. The variant sites can distinguish 11 mutational profiles in Sweden. Nine of the profiles appeared in Stockholm in March 2020. Mutational profiles 3 (B.1.1) and 6 (B.1), which contain the D936Y mutation, became the predominant profiles over time, spreading from Stockholm to other Swedish regions during April and the beginning of May. Furthermore, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicated that SARS-CoV-2 could have emerged in Sweden on 27 December 2019, and community transmission started on February 1st with an evolutionary rate of 1.5425 × 10 -3 substitutions per year. Our study provides novel knowledge on the spatio-temporal dynamics of Swedish SARS-CoV-2 variants during the early pandemic. Characterization of these viral variants can provide precious insights on viral pathogenesis and can be valuable for diagnostic and drug development approaches.
2020-09-14 Spatial temporal appearance of each variant and their mutation profile and clade information; Other supplementary materials.
Glans H, Gredmark-Russ S, Olausson M, Falck-Jones S, Varnaite R, [...], Brave A
[preprint]  medRxiv  
To understand the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized COVID-19 patients we simultaneously assessed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, live infectious virus in the airways, and virus-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in sera in 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 could be cultured from four patients, all with low or undetectable antibody response. Our data suggests that the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may correlate to risk for shedding live SARS-CoV-2 virus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
2020-09-13 Available on request due to privacy restrictions
Falck-Jones S, Vangeti S, Yu M, Falck-Jones R, Cagigi A, [...], Smed-Sorensen A
[preprint]  medRxiv  
The immunopathology of COVID-19 remains enigmatic, exhibiting immunodysregulation and T cell lymphopenia. Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC) are T cell suppressors that expand in inflammatory conditions, but their role in acute respiratory infections remains unclear. We studied blood and airways of COVID-19 patients across disease severity at multiple timepoints. M-MDSC frequencies were elevated in blood but not in nasopharyngeal or endotracheal aspirates of COVID-19 patients compared to controls. M-MDSCs isolated from COVID-19 patients suppressed T cell proliferation and IFNγ production partly via an arginase-1 (Arg-1) dependent mechanism. Furthermore, patients showed increased Arg-1 and IL-6 plasma levels. COVID-19 patients had fewer T cells, and displayed downregulated expression of the CD3ζ chain. Ordinal regression showed that early M-MDSC frequency predicted subsequent disease severity. In conclusion, M-MDSCs expand in blood of COVID-19 patients, suppress T cells and strongly associate with disease severity, suggesting a role for M-MDSCs in the dysregulated COVID-19 immune response.
2020-09-09 Available on request
Virhammar J, Kumlien E, Fällmar D, Frithiof R, Jackmann S, [...], Rostami E
Neurology 95 (10)  445-449
Here, we report a case of COVID-19–related acute necrotizing encephalopathy where SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in CSF 19 days after symptom onset after testing negative twice. Although monocytes and protein levels in CSF were only marginally increased, and our patient never experienced a hyperinflammatory state, her neurologic function deteriorated into coma. MRI of the brain showed pathologic signal symmetrically in central thalami, subinsular regions, medial temporal lobes, and brain stem. Extremely high concentrations of the neuronal injury markers neurofilament light and tau, as well as an astrocytic activation marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, were measured in CSF. Neuronal rescue proteins and other pathways were elevated in the in-depth proteomics analysis. The patient received IV immunoglobulins and plasma exchange. Her neurologic status improved, and she was extubated 4 weeks after symptom onset. This case report highlights the neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 in selected patients and emphasizes the importance of repeated lumbar punctures and CSF analyses in patients with suspected COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms.
2020-09-08 data on request from author
Larsson E, Brattström O, Agvald-Öhman C, Grip J, Campoccia Jalde F, [...], Karolinska Intensive Care COVID-19 Study Group
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand  
Information on characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 remains limited. We examined characteristics, clinical course and early outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU. We included all 260 patients with COVID-19 admitted to nine ICUs at the Karolinska University Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) between 9 March and 20 April 2020. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality among patients with definite outcomes (discharged from ICU or death), as of 30 April 2020 (study end point). Secondary outcomes included ICU length of stay, the proportion of patients receiving mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy, and hospital discharge destination. Of 260 ICU patients with COVID-19, 208 (80.0%) were men, the median age was 59 (IQR 51-65) years, 154 (59.2%) had at least one comorbidity, and the median duration of symptoms preceding ICU admission was 11 (IQR 8-14) days. Sixty-two (23.8%) patients remained in ICU at study end point. Among the 198 patients with definite outcomes, ICU length of stay was 12 (IQR, 6-18) days, 163 (82.3%) received mechanical ventilation, 28 (14.1%) received renal replacement therapy, 60 (30.3%) died, 62 (31.3%) were discharged home, 47 (23.7%) were discharged to ward, and 29 (14.6%) were discharged to another health care facility. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age and admission from the emergency department was associated with higher mortality. This study presents detailed data on clinical characteristics and early outcomes of consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU in a large tertiary hospital in Sweden.
2020-09-06 Available on request
Stattin K, Lipcsey M, Andersson H, Pontén E, Bülow Anderberg S, [...], Frithiof R
J Crit Care 60  249-252
The aim of this study was to investigate potential markers of coagulopathy and the effects of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on thromboelastography (TEG) and anti-factor Xa in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We conducted a prospective study in 31 consecutive adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. TEG with and without heparinase and anti-factor Xa analysis were performed. Standard thromboprophylaxis was given with dalteparin (75-100 IU/kg subcutaneously). Five patients (16%) had symptomatic thromboembolic events. All patients had a maximum amplitude (MA) > 65 mm and 13 (42%) had MA > 72 mm at some point during ICU stay. Anti-factor Xa activity were below the target range in 23% of the patients and above target range in 46% of patients. There was no significant correlation between dalteparin dose and anti-factor Xa activity. Patients with COVID-19 have hypercoagulability with high MA on TEG. The effect of LMWH on thromboembolic disease, anti-factor Xa activity and TEG was variable and could not be reliably predicted. This indicates that standard prophylactic doses of LMWH may be insufficient. Monitoring coagulation and the LMWH effect is important in patients with COVID-19 but interpreting the results in relation to risk of thromboembolic disease poses difficulties.
2020-09-03 Data available upon request
Rodriguez L, Pekkarinen PT, Lakshmikanth T, Tan Z, Consiglio CR, [...], Brodin P
Cell Rep Med 1 (5)  100078
Severe disease of SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by vigorous inflammatory responses in the lung, often with a sudden onset after 5-7 days of stable disease. Efforts to modulate this hyperinflammation and the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome rely on the unraveling of the immune cell interactions and cytokines that drive such responses. Given that every patient is captured at different stages of infection, longitudinal monitoring of the immune response is critical and systems-level analyses are required to capture cellular interactions. Here, we report on a systems-level blood immunomonitoring study of 37 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed with up to 14 blood samples from acute to recovery phases of the disease. We describe an IFNγ-eosinophil axis activated before lung hyperinflammation and changes in cell-cell co-regulation during different stages of the disease. We also map an immune trajectory during recovery that is shared among patients with severe COVID-19.
2020-08-25 Supplementary materials
Robertson J, Gostner JM, Nilsson S, Andersson L, Fuchs D, [...], Gisslen M
[preprint]  medRxiv
Background The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is rapidly spreading worldwide. There is limited information about prognostic markers that could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with a poor prognosis. Serum levels of the immune activation marker neopterin has shown to be of prognostic value in patients with SARS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum neopterin is associated with the severity of COVID-19. Methods We included 34 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between March 3 and March 30, 2020. Fifteen patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization, whereas 19 patients developed severe COVID-19 requiring intensive care. Concentrations of serum neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine were measured at and repeatedly after inclusion. Results We found a more than two-fold higher mean concentration of neopterin in severely ill patients (mean value 42.0 nmol/L (SD 18.2)) compared to patients with mild symptoms (16.9 nmol/L (SD 11.0)). All of the severe cases had elevated neopterin concentrations (>9.1 nmol/L) at the initial sampling with values ranging from 17.2 to 86.7 nmol/L. In comparison, 10 of 15 patients with mild disease had neopterin levels above 9.1 nmol/L, with concentrations in the range from 4.9 to 31.6 nmol/L. Neopterin levels gradually decreased during the course of COVID-19, but severe cases maintained elevated levels for a longer period. Moreover, lower levels of tryptophan and higher levels of kynurenine, indicating an increased tryptophan catabolism, were seen in the group with severe cases. Conclusions In conclusion, we found that serum neopterin levels are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that neopterin could be used as a prognostic marker, but further studies are needed to elucidate how it can be used in clinical praxis.
2020-08-22 Available on request
Maucourant C, Filipovic I, Ponzetta A, Aleman S, Cornillet M, [...], Karolinska COVID-19 Study Group
Sci Immunol 5 (50) 
Understanding innate immune responses in COVID-19 is important to decipher mechanisms of host responses and interpret disease pathogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes that respond to acute viral infections but might also contribute to immunopathology. Using 28-color flow cytometry, we here reveal strong NK cell activation across distinct subsets in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. This pattern was mirrored in scRNA-seq signatures of NK cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from COVID-19 patients. Unsupervised high-dimensional analysis of peripheral blood NK cells furthermore identified distinct NK cell immunotypes that were linked to disease severity. Hallmarks of these immunotypes were high expression of perforin, NKG2C, and Ksp37, reflecting increased presence of adaptive NK cells in circulation of patients with severe disease. Finally, arming of CD56 bright NK cells was observed across COVID-19 disease states, driven by a defined protein-protein interaction network of inflammatory soluble factors. This study provides a detailed map of the NK cell activation landscape in COVID-19 disease.
Lindahl JF, Hoffman T, Esmaeilzadeh M, Olsen B, Winter R, [...], Lundkvist Å
Infect Ecol Epidemiol 10 (1)  1789036
The COVID-19 pandemic is growing and spread in the Swedish elderly care system during April 2020. The increasing number of employees on sick-leave due to COVID-19 created severe logistic problems. Some elderly care homes therefore started to screen their personnel to secure the safety of the elderly and to avoid unnecessary quarantine of potentially immune employees. Secondary data from a screening with a COVID-19 rapid test for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG of 1,005 employees in 22 elderly care homes in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed. Seropositive employees were found in 21 out of the 22 care homes. In total, 23% (231/1,005) of the employees tested positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and 14.3% (144/1,005) were found positive for IgM (either alone or combined with IgG), indicating recent or present infection. Of those that tested seropositive, 46.5% did not report any clinical symptoms, indicating pre- or asymptomatic infections. Reported symptoms with the highest correlation with seropositivity were fever and loss of smell and taste. These results suggest that antibody testing of employees in elderly care homes is valuable for surveillance of disease development and a crucial screening tool in the effort to decrease the death toll in this pandemic.
2020-08-05 Serological responses of 1,005 employees to SARS-CoV-2 at 22 different elderly care homes in Stockholm
Roxhed N, Bendes A, Dale M, Mattsson C, Hanke L, [...], Schwenk JM
[preprint]  medRxiv  
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a tremendous challenge for the global community. We established a translational approach combining home blood sampling by finger-pricking with multiplexed serology to assess the exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in a general population. The developed procedure determines the immune response in multiplexed assays against several spike (S, here denoted SPK), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (NCP) proteins in eluates from dried capillary blood. The seroprevalence was then determined in two study sets by mailing 1000 blood sampling kits to random households in urban Stockholm during early and late April 2020, respectively. After receiving 55% (1097/2000) of the cards back within three weeks, 80% (878/1097) were suitable for the analyses of IgG and IgM titers. The data revealed diverse pattern of immune response, thus seroprevalence was dependent on the antigen, immunoglobulin class, stringency to include different antigens, as well as the required analytical performance. Applying unsupervised dimensionality reduction to the combined IgG and IgM data, 4.4% (19/435; 95% CI: 2.4%-6.3%) and 6.3% (28/443; 95% CI: 4.1%-8.6%) of the samples clustered with convalescent controls. Using overlapping scores from at least two SPK antigens, prevalence rates reached 10.1% (44/435; 95% CI: 7.3%-12.9%) in study set 1 and 10.8% (48/443; 95% CI: 7.9%-13.7%). Measuring the immune response against several SARS-CoV-2 proteins in a multiplexed workflow can provide valuable insights about the serological diversity and improve the certainty of the classification. Combining such assays with home-sampling of blood presents a viable strategy for individual-level diagnostics and towards an unbiased assessment of the seroprevalence in a population and may serve to improve our understanding about the diversity of COVID-19 etiology.
2020-07-02 Available on request
Patel H, Ashton NJ, Dobson RJ, Anderson L, Yilmaz A, [...], Zetterberg H
[preprint]  medRxiv
The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic manifests itself as a mild respiratory tract infection in the majority of individuals leading to COVID-19 disease. However, in some infected individuals, this can progress to severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to multi-organ failure and death. The purpose of this study is to explore the proteomic differences between mild, severe and critical COVID-19 positive patients. Blood protein profiling was performed on 59 COVID-19 mild (n=26), severe (n=9) or critical (n=24) cases and 28 controls using the OLINK inflammation, autoimmune, cardiovascular and neurology panels. Differential expression analysis was performed within and between disease groups to generate nine different analyses. From the 368 proteins measured per individual, more than 75% were observed to be significantly perturbed in COVID-19 cases. Six proteins (IL6, CKAP4, Gal-9, IL-1ra, LILRB4 and PD-L1) were identified to be associated with disease severity. The results have been made readily available through an interactive web-based application for instant data exploration and visualization, and can be accessed at Our results demonstrate that dynamic changes in blood proteins that associate with disease severity can potentially be used as early biomarkers to monitor disease severity in COVID-19 and serve as potential therapeutic targets.