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Data available from research groups in Sweden

The list below is curated manually and as such may not be exhaustive. If you would like to see your dataset here or correct information about your dataset, please get in touch with us. Projects sharing data where at least one author has an affiliation with a Swedish research institute are included. Only projects which openly share data or analysis code that has re-use potential are included.

Last updated: 2022-05-08

Project Last updated Available data
Olofsson T, Vilhelmsson A
Data Brief 40 107698
The Swedish approach to managing the 2020-2021 COVID-19 pandemic has received significant attention in international scholarly work and press. For this dataset, we have reviewed governmental and media archives to build a detailed timeline that chronicles significant policies, interventions, and events in the Swedish management of COVID-19. The dataset contains summary descriptions of what took place, when it happened, and who the principal actors involved were. Links to primary sources are provided for each entry. Because of the level of detail and saturation, the dataset offers a detailed account of Swedish pandemic governance and will benefit anyone working on Swedish pandemic management or doing comparative work between Sweden and other jurisdictions.
Rosén J, Noreland M, Stattin K, Lipcsey M, Frithiof R, [...], Uppsala Intensive Care COVID-19 Research Group
PLoS One 16 (12) e0261315
We investigated the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and their association with mortality, organ dysfunction and cardiac biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Sweden. ECG, clinical data and laboratory findings during ICU stay were extracted from medical records and ECGs obtained near ICU admission were reviewed by two independent physicians. Eighty patients had an acceptable ECG near ICU-admission. In the entire cohort 30-day mortality was 28%. Compared to patients with normal ECG, among whom 30-day mortality was 16%, patients with ECG fulfilling criteria for prior myocardial infarction had higher mortality, 63%, odds ratio (OR) 9.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-55.6) adjusted for Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and patients with ST-T abnormalities had 50% mortality and OR 6.05 (95% CI 1.82-21.3) in univariable analysis. Both prior myocardial infarction pattern and ST-T pathology were associated with need for vasoactive treatment and higher peak plasma levels of troponin-I, NT-pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide), and lactate during ICU stay compared to patients with normal ECG. ECG with prior myocardial infarction pattern or acute ST-T pathology at ICU admission is associated with death, need for vasoactive treatment and higher levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage and strain in severely ill COVID-19 patients, and should alert clinicians to a poor prognosis.
Murray B, Kerfoot E, Chen L, Deng J, Graham MS, [...], Ourselin S
Sci Data 8 (1) 297
The Covid Symptom Study, a smartphone-based surveillance study on COVID-19 symptoms in the population, is an exemplar of big data citizen science. As of May 23rd, 2021, over 5 million participants have collectively logged over 360 million self-assessment reports since its introduction in March 2020. The success of the Covid Symptom Study creates significant technical challenges around effective data curation. The primary issue is scale. The size of the dataset means that it can no longer be readily processed using standard Python-based data analytics software such as Pandas on commodity hardware. Alternative technologies exist but carry a higher technical complexity and are less accessible to many researchers. We present ExeTera, a Python-based open source software package designed to provide Pandas-like data analytics on datasets that approach terabyte scales. We present its design and capabilities, and show how it is a critical component of a data curation pipeline that enables reproducible research across an international research group for the Covid Symptom Study.
Mäkelä P, Rossow I, Moan IS, Bye EK, Kilian C, [...], Allebeck P
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res e1892
To examine (1) how a rapid data collection using a convenience sample fares in estimating change in alcohol consumption when compared to more conventional data sources, and (2) how alcohol consumption changed in Finland and Norway during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Three different types of data sources were used for the 2nd quarter of 2020 and 2019: sales statistics combined with data on unrecorded consumption; the rapid European Alcohol Use and COVID-19 (ESAC) survey (Finland: n = 3800, Norway: n = 17,092); and conventional population surveys (Finland: n = 2345, Norway: n1 = 1328, n2 = 2189, n3 = 25,708). Survey measures of change were retrospective self-reports. The statistics indicate that alcohol consumption decreased in Finland by 9%, while little change was observed in Norway. In all surveys, reporting a decrease in alcohol use was more common than reporting an increase (ratios 2-2.6 in Finland, 1.3-2 in Norway). Compared to conventional surveys, in the ESAC survey fewer respondents reported no change and past-year alcohol consumption was higher. The rapid survey using convenience sampling gave similar results on change in drinking as conventional surveys but higher past-year drinking, suggesting self-selection effects. Aspects of the pandemic driving alcohol consumption down were equally strong or stronger than those driving it up.
2021-08-27 Database with codebook for the European Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey (figshare entry)
Kerr JR, Schneider CR, Recchia G, Dryhurst S, Sahlin U, [...], van der Linden S
BMJ Open 11 (8) e048025
Describe demographical, social and psychological correlates of willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Series of online surveys undertaken between March and October 2020. A total of 25 separate national samples (matched to country population by age and sex) in 12 different countries were recruited through online panel providers (n=25 334). Reported willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. Reported willingness to receive a vaccine varied widely across samples, ranging from 63% to 88%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal sex (female OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.64), trust in medical and scientific experts (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34) and worry about the COVID-19 virus (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.53) as the strongest correlates of stated vaccine acceptance considering pooled data and the most consistent correlates across countries. In a subset of UK samples, we show that these effects are robust after controlling for attitudes towards vaccination in general. Our results indicate that the burden of trust largely rests on the shoulders of the scientific and medical community, with implications for how future COVID-19 vaccination information should be communicated to maximise uptake.
Wang K, Goldenberg A, Dorison CA, Miller JK, Uusberg A, [...], Moshontz H
Nat Hum Behav 5 (8) 1089-1110
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 12 May 2020. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at
2021-08-00 Raw data, processed data and code
Manica M, Guzzetta G, Riccardo F, Valenti A, Poletti P, [...], Merler S
Nat Commun 12 (1) 4570
To counter the second COVID-19 wave in autumn 2020, the Italian government introduced a system of physical distancing measures organized in progressively restrictive tiers (coded as yellow, orange, and red) imposed on a regional basis according to real-time epidemiological risk assessments. We leverage the data from the Italian COVID-19 integrated surveillance system and publicly available mobility data to evaluate the impact of the three-tiered regional restriction system on human activities, SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and hospitalization burden in Italy. The individuals' attendance to locations outside the residential settings was progressively reduced with tiers, but less than during the national lockdown against the first COVID-19 wave in the spring. The reproduction number R(t) decreased below the epidemic threshold in 85 out of 107 provinces after the introduction of the tier system, reaching average values of about 0.95-1.02 in the yellow tier, 0.80-0.93 in the orange tier and 0.74-0.83 in the red tier. We estimate that the reduced transmissibility resulted in averting about 36% of the hospitalizations between November 6 and November 25, 2020. These results are instrumental to inform public health efforts aimed at preventing future resurgence of cases.
2021-07-27 Mobility and epidemiological data
Ringlander J, Olausson J, Nyström K, Härnqvist T, Jakobsson HE, [...], Lindh M
Infect Dis (Lond) 1-8
Reinfections with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported and most cases were classified as mild. Reports of persistent infection with SARS-CoV-2 are rare. To investigate the frequency of recurrent and persistent infection with SARS-CoV-2. Possible cases of reinfection and persistent infection were retrospectively identified in a database of 59,998 patients. Deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genomes was performed. We report the first case of COVID-19 reinfection in Sweden and three cases of infection with persistence over several months. The rate of sequencing-verified reinfection was 0.02% (one patient out of 6014 patients testing positive during the period). The reinfected patient had mild symptoms during the second episode, which might reflect partial immunity. The frequency of reinfection during the first wave of the pandemic in western Sweden was very low. Our results indicate that elderly with a putative reinfection more likely have persistent COVID-19.
2021-07-24 Nucleotide differences between the first infection and second infection strains from one patient with reinfection
Fyles M, Fearon E, Overton C, University of Manchester COVID-19 Modelling Group , Wingfield T, [...], House T
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 376 (1829) 20200267
We explore strategies of contact tracing, case isolation and quarantine of exposed contacts to control the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using a branching process model with household structure. This structure reflects higher transmission risks among household members than among non-household members. We explore strategic implementation choices that make use of household structure, and investigate strategies including two-step tracing, backwards tracing, smartphone tracing and tracing upon symptom report rather than test results. The primary model outcome is the effect of contact tracing, in combination with different levels of physical distancing, on the growth rate of the epidemic. Furthermore, we investigate epidemic extinction times to indicate the time period over which interventions must be sustained. We consider effects of non-uptake of isolation/quarantine, non-adherence, and declining recall of contacts over time. Our results find that, compared to self-isolation of cases without contact tracing, a contact tracing strategy designed to take advantage of household structure allows for some relaxation of physical distancing measures but cannot completely control the epidemic absent of other measures. Even assuming no imported cases and sustainment of moderate physical distancing, testing and tracing efforts, the time to bring the epidemic to extinction could be in the order of months to years. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK'.
2021-07-19 Data and code
Solís Arce JS, Warren SS, Meriggi NF, Scacco A, McMurry N, [...], Omer SB
Nat Med
Widespread acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines is crucial for achieving sufficient immunization coverage to end the global pandemic, yet few studies have investigated COVID-19 vaccination attitudes in lower-income countries, where large-scale vaccination is just beginning. We analyze COVID-19 vaccine acceptance across 15 survey samples covering 10 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia, Africa and South America, Russia (an upper-middle-income country) and the United States, including a total of 44,260 individuals. We find considerably higher willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine in our LMIC samples (mean 80.3%; median 78%; range 30.1 percentage points) compared with the United States (mean 64.6%) and Russia (mean 30.4%). Vaccine acceptance in LMICs is primarily explained by an interest in personal protection against COVID-19, while concern about side effects is the most common reason for hesitancy. Health workers are the most trusted sources of guidance about COVID-19 vaccines. Evidence from this sample of LMICs suggests that prioritizing vaccine distribution to the Global South should yield high returns in advancing global immunization coverage. Vaccination campaigns should focus on translating the high levels of stated acceptance into actual uptake. Messages highlighting vaccine efficacy and safety, delivered by healthcare workers, could be effective for addressing any remaining hesitancy in the analyzed LMICs.
2021-07-16 Individual participant data (de-identified), analytic code and replication file
Recalde M, Roel E, Pistillo A, Sena AG, Prats-Uribe A, [...], Duarte-Salles T
Int J Obes (Lond)
A detailed characterization of patients with COVID-19 living with obesity has not yet been undertaken. We aimed to describe and compare the demographics, medical conditions, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients living with obesity (PLWO) to those of patients living without obesity. We conducted a cohort study based on outpatient/inpatient care and claims data from January to June 2020 from Spain, the UK, and the US. We used six databases standardized to the OMOP common data model. We defined two non-mutually exclusive cohorts of patients diagnosed and/or hospitalized with COVID-19; patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We report the frequency of demographics, prior medical conditions, and 30-days outcomes (hospitalization, events, and death) by obesity status. We included 627 044 (Spain: 122 058, UK: 2336, and US: 502 650) diagnosed and 160 013 (Spain: 18 197, US: 141 816) hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of obesity was higher among patients hospitalized (39.9%, 95%CI: 39.8-40.0) than among those diagnosed with COVID-19 (33.1%; 95%CI: 33.0-33.2). In both cohorts, PLWO were more often female. Hospitalized PLWO were younger than patients without obesity. Overall, COVID-19 PLWO were more likely to have prior medical conditions, present with cardiovascular and respiratory events during hospitalization, or require intensive services compared to COVID-19 patients without obesity. We show that PLWO differ from patients without obesity in a wide range of medical conditions and present with more severe forms of COVID-19, with higher hospitalization rates and intensive services requirements. These findings can help guiding preventive strategies of COVID-19 infection and complications and generating hypotheses for causal inference studies.
2021-07-15 Analytic code
Millroth P, Frey R
J Anxiety Disord 83 102454
In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic it is important to identify factors that make people particularly vulnerable of developing mental-health issues in order to provide case-specific treatments. In this article, we examine the roles of two psychological constructs - originally put forth in the behavioral decision sciences - in predicting interindividual differences in fear responses: general risk aversion (GRA) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). We first provide a review of these constructs and illustrate why they may play important roles in shaping anxiety-related disorders. Thereafter we present an empirical study that collected survey data from 550 U.S. residents, comprising self-assessments of dispositions towards risk and uncertainty, anxiety- and depression levels, as well as demographic variables - to thus test the extent to which these psychological constructs are predictive of strong fear responses related to COVID-19 (i.e., mortal fear, racing heart). The results from Bayesian multi-model inference analyses showed that GRA and IU were more powerful predictors of fear responses than demographic variables. Moreover, the predictive power of these constructs was independent of general anxiety- and depression levels. Subsequent mediation analyses showed that the effects of GRA and IU were both direct and indirect via anxiety. We conclude by discussing possible treatment options, but also highlight that future research needs to further examine causal pathways and conceptual overlaps.
2021-07-14 Survey data
Rück C, Mataix-Cols D, Malki K, Adler M, Flygare O, [...], Sidorchuk A
BMJ Open 11 (7) e049302
There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic will be associated with an increase in suicides, but evidence supporting a link between pandemics and suicide is limited. Using data from the three influenza pandemics of the 20th century, we aimed to investigate whether an association exists between influenza deaths and suicide deaths. Time series analysis. Sweden. Deaths from influenza and suicides extracted from the Statistical Yearbook of Sweden for 1910-1978, covering three pandemics (the Spanish influenza, the Asian influenza and the Hong Kong influenza). Annual suicide rates in Sweden among the whole population, men and women. Non-linear autoregressive distributed lag models was implemented to explore if there is a short-term and/or long-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates with suicide rates during 1910-1978. Between 1910 and 1978, there was no evidence of either short-term or long-term significant associations between influenza death rates and changes in suicides (β coefficients of 0.00002, p=0.931 and β=0.00103, p=0.764 for short-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates, respectively, with suicide rates, and β=-0.0002, p=0.998 and β=0.00211, p=0.962 for long-term relationship of increases and decreases in influenza death rates, respectively, with suicide rates). The same pattern emerged in separate analyses for men and women. We found no evidence of short-term or long-term association between influenza death rates and suicide death rates across three 20th century pandemics.
2021-07-07 Numbers of deaths by influenza and suicide and total population for 1910-1978
Meili KW, Jonsson H, Lindholm L, Månsdotter A
Scand J Public Health 14034948211023633
Measures against COVID-19 potentially impact quality of life in different ways. The capability approach by Amartya Sen with a broad and consistent framework for measuring quality of life is suited to capture the various consequences. We aimed to examine (a) whether individuals experienced change in 10 capability dimensions during the first half of 2020, (b) which dimensions were affected most, and (c) whether changes were unequally distributed in terms of gender, education, income, geography, housing, living situation and place of birth. We assessed self-reported capability change in Sweden in 10 capability dimensions in a cross-sectional online survey among 500 participants on a five-item Likert scale. We analysed the distribution of answers by comparing the balance of positive and negative perceived changes and used mixed effects logistic regression to examine associations with background characteristics of the participants. Reported perceived negative changes outweighed positive changes, and a higher proportion stated negative perceived changes if they also stated having low capability in the same dimension. In the capabilities of financial situation, political resources and health, the proportions of perceived negative change were highest. Odds for perceived negative change compared to no or positive change were higher for higher incomes, living in medium-sized municipalities, being born outside Europe, living in the south of Sweden, and renting instead of owning housing. Self-reported negative capability change, and associated inequalities related to socioeconomic position, place of birth and regional residence should be of concern for policymakers.
2021-07-02 Dataset: capability change covid-19
Lindholt MF, Jørgensen F, Bor A, Petersen MB
BMJ Open 11 (6) e048172
The management of the COVID-19 pandemic hinges on the approval of safe and effective vaccines but, equally importantly, on high vaccine acceptance among people. To facilitate vaccine acceptance via effective health communication, it is key to understand levels of vaccine scepticism and the demographic, psychological and political predictors. To this end, we examine the levels and predictors of acceptance of an approved COVID-19 vaccine. We examine the levels and predictors of acceptance of an approved COVID-19 vaccine in large online surveys from eight Western democracies that differ in terms of the severity of the pandemic and their response: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Sweden, Italy, UK and USA (total N=18 231). Survey respondents were quota sampled to match the population margins on age, gender and geographical location for each country. The study was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021, allowing us to assess changes in acceptance and predictors as COVID-19 vaccine programmes were rolled out. The outcome of the study is self-reported acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine approved and recommended by health authorities. The data reveal large variations in vaccine acceptance that ranges from 83% in Denmark to 47% in France and Hungary. Lack of vaccine acceptance is associated with lack of trust in authorities and scientists, conspiratorial thinking and a lack of concern about COVID-19. Most national levels of vaccine acceptance fall below estimates of the required threshold for herd immunity. The results emphasise the long-term importance of building trust in preparations for health emergencies such as the current pandemic. For health communication, the results emphasise the importance of focusing on personal consequences of infections and debunking of myths to guide communication strategies.
2021-06-15 Dataset: vaccine acceptance in Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Sweden, Italy, UK and USA; September 2020 to February 2021.
Louca P, Murray B, Klaser K, Graham MS, Mazidi M, [...], Menni C
BMJ Nutr Prev Health 4 (1) 149-157
Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. App-based community survey. 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm these observational findings before any therapeutic recommendations can be made.
Hosen I, Pakpour AH, Sakib N, Hussain N, al Mamun F, [...], Mamun MA
PLoS One 16 (5) e0251151
2021-05-03 Dataset: socio-demographic characteristics, sources from where participants get information regarding COVID-19, participants’ knowledge concerning COVID-19, participants’ behavior in preventing COVID-19 etc.
Alrawashdeh HM, Al-Tammemi AB, Alzawahreh MK, Al-Tamimi A, Elkholy M, [...], Ghoul I
BMC Public Health 21 (1) 811
Healthcare professionals including physicians were subjected to an increased workload during the COVID-19 crisis, leaving them exposed to significant physical and psychological distress. Therefore, our present study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence of burnout and levels of job satisfaction among physicians in Jordan, and (ii) explore physicians' opinions, experiences, and perceptions during the pandemic crisis. This was a mixed-method study that utilized a structured web-based questionnaire and semi-structured individual interviews. The 10-Item Burnout Measure-Short version (BMS), and the 5-Item Short Index of Job Satisfaction (SIJS) were adopted to assess occupational burnout and job satisfaction, respectively. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, based on a conceptual framework that was developed from Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation and Job Demands-Resources Model. Descriptive statistics and regression models, as well as inductive thematic analysis, were used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. A total of 973 survey responses and 11 interviews were included in our analysis. The prevalence of burnout among physicians was (57.7%). Several significant factors were positively associated with burnout, including female gender, working at highly loaded hospitals, working for long hours, doing night shifts, lack of sufficient access to personal protective equipment, and being positively tested for SARS-CoV-2. Regarding job satisfaction, regression analysis revealed that age was positively associated with higher levels of job satisfaction. On contrary, being a general practitioner or specialist, working at highly loaded hospitals, low salaries, and suffering from burnout have predicted lower levels of job satisfaction. Besides, four themes have emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) Work-induced psychological distress during the pandemic, (ii) Decision-driven satisfactory and dissatisfactory experiences, (iii) Impact of the pandemic on doctor-patient communication and professional skills, and (iv) Economic impacts of the pandemic crisis and lockdown. A significant physical and psychological burden was associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Reliable efforts should be implemented aiming at protecting physicians' physical and mental wellbeing, enhancing their working conditions, and raising awareness about burnout. Evidence-based decisions and proper utilization of financial and human resources at institutional and national levels are believed to be crucial for the sustainability of the health workforce, especially in crises.
2021-04-28 Raw dataset: individual-level demographic, occupational, COVID-19, burnout, etc. data
Steele J, Androulakis-Korakakis P, Carlson L, Williams D, Phillips S, [...], Fisher JP
Sports Med
Understanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions, and facilitate future follow-up study. To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated 'lockdown', affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT prior to the pandemic. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and through authors' professional and personal networks. Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25, 38]), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7 years [IQR = 4, 12]) participated. Outcomes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/recorded, time of day, and training goals. Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue RT. A majority of individuals (82.8%) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown. Marginal probabilities from generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-lockdown. There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7%) and increased probability of training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89%); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51%); reduced probability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13%) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81%), and increased probability of bodyweight training (~ 62% to ~ 82%); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62-82% to ~ 55-66%) and greater probability of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49%); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training (r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their training goals. Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower during-lockdown. Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types of training performed. However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effective and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown. These results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive pandemic-related public health measures. PRE-REGISTRATION: . The preprint version of this work is available on SportRχiv: .
2021-04-19 Dataset: Survey data
Blanco N, Stafford K, Lavoie MC, Brandenburg A, Górna MW, [...], Merski M
Epidemiol. Infect. 1-25
2021-03-25 Raw, original data and fits data set
Beridze G, Triolo F, Grande G, Fratiglioni L, Calderón-Larrañaga A
2021-03-20 Data available through the the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen
Vlachos J, Hertegård E, B Svaleryd H
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118 (9)
To reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), most countries closed schools, despite uncertainty if school closures are an effective containment measure. At the onset of the pandemic, Swedish upper-secondary schools moved to online instruction, while lower-secondary schools remained open. This allows for a comparison of parents and teachers differently exposed to open and closed schools, but otherwise facing similar conditions. Leveraging rich Swedish register data, we connect all students and teachers in Sweden to their families and study the impact of moving to online instruction on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. We find that, among parents, exposure to open rather than closed schools resulted in a small increase in PCR-confirmed infections (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI [CI95] 1.03 to 1.32). Among lower-secondary teachers, the infection rate doubled relative to upper-secondary teachers (OR 2.01; CI95 1.52 to 2.67). This spilled over to the partners of lower-secondary teachers, who had a higher infection rate than their upper-secondary counterparts (OR 1.29; CI95 1.00 to 1.67). When analyzing COVID-19 diagnoses from healthcare visits and the incidence of severe health outcomes, results are similar for teachers, but weaker for parents and teachers' partners. The results for parents indicate that keeping lower-secondary schools open had minor consequences for the overall transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in society. The results for teachers suggest that measures to protect teachers could be considered.
  • Analysis code
  • Data available from Statistics Sweden, the Public Health Agency, the National Board of Health and Welfare
Ledberg A
Front Public Health 9 579948
Influenza viruses have caused disease outbreaks in human societies for a long time. Influenza often has rapid onset and relatively short duration, both in the individual and in the population. The case fatality rate varies for different strains of the virus, as do the effects on total mortality. Outbreaks related to coronavirus infections have recently become a global concern but much less is known about the dynamics of these outbreaks and their effects on mortality. In this work, disease outbreaks in Sweden, in the time period of 1860-2020, are characterized and compared to the currently ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. The focus is on outbreaks with a sharp increase in all-cause mortality. Outbreak onset is defined as the time point when death counts start to increase consistently for a period of at least 10 days. The duration of the outbreak is defined as the time period in which mortality rates are elevated. Excess mortality is estimated by standard methods. In total there were 15 outbreaks detected in the time period, the first 14 were likely caused by influenza virus infections, the last by SARS-CoV-2. The mortality dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is shown to be similar to outbreaks due to influenza virus, and in terms of the number of excess deaths, it is the worst outbreak in Sweden since the "Spanish flu" of 1918-1919.
2021-02-18 Analysis code and data: daily death counts for Sweden from 1860 to 31.08.2020; the total population of Sweden for the years 1860 to 2019 (from Statistics Sweden).
Feldman M, Lacey Krylova V, Farrow P, Donovan L, Zandamela E, [...], Baker K
PLoS One 16 (2) e0244924
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response, yet there is a paucity of literature on their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) in relation to the pandemic. Community Health Workers (CHWs) in Mozambique are known locally as agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs). While technical guidance surrounding COVID-19 is available to support APEs, communicating this information has been challenging due to restrictions on travel, face-to-face group meetings and training, imposed from May to August 2020. A digital health platform, upSCALE, that already supports 1,213 APEs and 299 supervisors across three provinces, is being used to support APEs on effective COVID-19 management by delivering COVID-19 sensitive SMS messages, training modules and a COVID-19 KAP survey. The KAP survey, conducted from June 2020 to August 2020, consisted of 10 questions. Of 1,065 active upSCALE APEs, 28% completed the survey. Results indicate that only a small proportion of APEs listed the correct COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes and appropriate prevention measures (n = (25%), n = (16%) and n = (39%), respectively) specifically included in national health education materials. Misconceptions were mainly related to transmission routes, high risk individuals and asymptomatic patients. 84% said they followed all government prevention guidelines. The results from the KAP survey were used to support the rapid development and deployment of targeted COVID-19 awareness and education materials for the APEs. A follow-up KAP survey is planned for November 2020. Adapting the existing upSCALE platform enabled a better understanding, in real time, of the KAP of APEs around COVID-19 management. Subsequently, supporting delivery of tailored messages and education, vital for ensuring a successful COVID-19 response.
2021-02-10 The Covid-19 pandemic: knowledge, attitudes and practice among healthcare workers in Mozambique, Survey 1, 2020
Langegård U, Kiani K, Nielsen SJ, Svensson P
BMC Nurs 20 (1) 23
The use of distance education using digital tools in higher education has increased over the last decade, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study aimed to describe and evaluate nursing students' experiences of the pedagogical transition from traditional campus based learning to distance learning using digital tools. The nursing course Symptom and signs of illness underwent a transition from campus based education to distance learning using digital tools because of the COVID-19 pandemic. This pedagogical transition in teaching was evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Focus group interviews (n = 9) were analysed using qualitative content analysis to explore students' experiences of the pedagogical transition and to construct a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised 14 items, including two open-ended questions. The questionnaire was delivered to all course participants and responses were obtained from 96 of 132 students (73%). Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and comments from the open-ended questions were used as quotes to highlight the quantitative data. The analysis of the focus group interviews extracted three main dimensions: didactic aspects of digital teaching, study environment, and students' own resources. Social interaction was an overall theme included in all three dimensions. Data from the questionnaire showed that a majority of students preferred campus based education and experienced deterioration in all investigated dimensions after the pedagogical transition. However, approximately one-third of the students appeared to prefer distance learning using digital tools. The main finding was that the pedagogical transition to distance education reduced the possibility for students' social interactions in their learning process. This negatively affected several aspects of their experience of distance learning using digital tools, such as reduced motivation. However, the heterogeneity in the responses suggested that a blended learning approach may offer pedagogical benefits while maintaining an advantageous level of social interaction.
2021-01-19 Available on request
Björkman A, Engström M, Winblad U, Holmström IK
BMC Nurs 20 (1)
2021-01-14 Available on request
Sallam M, Dababseh D, Eid H, Al-Mahzoum K, Al-Haidar A, [...], Mahafzah A
Vaccines 9 (1) 42
2021-01-12 Available on request
Brandal LT, Ofitserova TS, Meijerink H, Rykkvin R, Lund HM, [...], Winje BA
Euro Surveill 26 (1)
2021-01-07 Available in paper; Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples from paediatric COVID-19 index cases and their school contacts
Beneria A, Arnedo M, Contreras S, Pérez-Carrasco M, Garcia-Ruiz I, [...], Rius JB
BMC Med Educ 20 (1) 515
Non-technical skills such as leadership, communication, or situation awareness should lead to effective teamwork in a crisis. This study aimed to analyse the role of these skills in the emotional response of health professionals to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the COVID-19 outbreak, 48 doctors and 48 nurses participated in a simulation-based teamwork training program based on teaching non-technical skills through simulation. In May 2020, this group of professionals from a COVID-19 referral hospital was invited to participate in a survey exploring stress, anxiety, and depression, using the PSS-14 (Perceived Stress Scale) and the HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) measures. A control group that did not receive the training was included. We conducted a logistic regression to assess whether having attended a simulation-based teamwork training program modified the probability of presenting psychological distress (PSS-14 > 18 or HADS> 12). A total of 141 healthcare professionals were included, 77 in the intervention group and 64 in the control group. Based on the PSS-14, 70.1% of the intervention group and 75% of the control group (p = 0.342) had symptoms of stress. Having contact with COVID-19 patients [OR 4.16(1.64-10.52)]; having minors in charge [OR 2.75 (1.15-6.53)]; working as a doctor [0.39(0.16-0.95)], and being a woman [OR 2.94(1.09-7.91)] were related with PSS14 symptoms. Based on the HADS, 54.6% of the intervention group and 42.2% of the control group (p = 0.346) had symptoms of anxiety or depression. Having contact with COVID-19 patients [OR 2.17(1.05-4.48)] and having minors in charge [OR 2.14(1.06-4.32)] were related to HADS symptoms. Healthcare professionals who attended COVID-19 patients showed higher levels of anxiety and depression [OR 2.56(1.03-6.36) (p = 0.043)]. Healthcare professionals trained in non-technical skills through simulation tended towards higher levels of anxiety and depression and fewer levels of stress, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
2020-12-21 Available on request
Kennedy B, Martinell M, Hammar U, van Zoest V, Kristiansson RS, [...], Fall T
2020-12-16 Available on request
Godman B, Haque M, Islam S, Iqbal S, Urmi UL, [...], Sefah I
Front Public Health 8 585832
Background: Countries have introduced a variety of measures to prevent and treat COVID-19 with medicines and personal protective equipment (PPE), with some countries adopting preventative strategies earlier than others. However, there has been considerable controversy surrounding some treatments. This includes hydroxychloroquine where the initial hype and misinformation lead to shortages, price rises and suicides. Price rises and shortages have also been seen for PPE. Such activities can have catastrophic effects on patients where there are high co-payment levels and issues of affordability. Consequently, there is a need to investigate this further. Objective: Assess changes in the availability, utilization and prices of relevant medicines and PPE during the pandemic among a range of Asian countries. Our approach: Narrative literature review combined with interviews among community pharmacists to assess changes in consumption, prices and shortages of medicines and PPE from the beginning of March 2020 until end of May 2020. In addition, suggestions on ways to reduce misinformation. Results: 308 pharmacists took part from five Asian countries. There was an appreciable increase in the utilization of antimicrobials in Pakistan (in over 88% of pharmacies), with lower increases or no change in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Vietnam. Encouragingly, there was increased use of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE across the countries, as well as limited price rises for antimicrobials in India, Malaysia and Vietnam, although greater price rises seen for analgesics and vitamin C/immune boosters. Appreciable price increases were also seen for PPE across some countries. Conclusion: Encouraging to see increases in utilization of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE. However, increases in the utilization and prices of antimicrobials is a concern that needs addressing alongside misinformation and any unintended consequences from the pandemic. Community pharmacists can play a key role in providing evidence-based advice, helping to moderate prices, as well as helping address some of the unintended consequences of the pandemic.
2020-12-14 Available on request
Mondino E, Di Baldassarre G, Mård J, Ridolfi E, Rusca M
Sci Data 7 (1) 434
Knowing how people perceive multiple risks is essential to the management and promotion of public health and safety. Here we present a dataset based on a survey (N = 4,154) of public risk perception in Italy and Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both countries were heavily affected by the first wave of infections in Spring 2020, but their governmental responses were very different. As such, the dataset offers unique opportunities to investigate the role of governmental responses in shaping public risk perception. In addition to epidemics, the survey considered indirect effects of COVID-19 (domestic violence, economic crises), as well as global (climate change) and local (wildfires, floods, droughts, earthquakes, terror attacks) threats. The survey examines perceived likelihoods and impacts, individual and authorities' preparedness and knowledge, and socio-demographic indicators. Hence, the resulting dataset has the potential to enable a plethora of analyses on social, cultural and institutional factors influencing the way in which people perceive risk.
2020-12-10 Raw dataset: perceived likelihoods and impacts, individual and authorities’ preparedness and knowledge, socio-demographic characteristics (N=2,033 in Italy, N=2,121 in Sweden)
Mohammad MA, Koul S, Gale CP, Alfredsson J, James S, [...], Erlinge D
J Intern Med
We aimed to study the effect of social containment mandates on ACS presentation during COVID-19 pandemic using location activity and mobility data from mobile phone map services. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) including all ACS presentations during the pandemic until May 07, 2020. Using a count regression model, we adjusted for day of the week, daily weather, and incidence of COVID-19. A 10% increase in activity around areas of residence was associated with 38% lower rates of ACS hospitalisations whereas increased activity relating to retail and recreation, grocery stores and pharmacies, workplaces as well as mode of mobility was associated with 10-20% higher rates of ACS hospitalisations. Government policy regarding social containment mandates has important public health implications for medical emergencies like ACS and may explain the decline in ACS presentations observed during COVID-19 pandemic.
2020-12-01 Available on request
Delavari S, Abolhassani H, Abolnezhadian F, Babaha F, Iranparast S, [...], Aghamohamamdi A
J Clin Immunol
Although it is estimated that COVID-19 life-threatening conditions may be diagnosed in less than 1:1000 infected individuals below the age of 50, but the real impact of this pandemic on pediatric patients with different types of primary immunodeficiency (PID) is not elucidated. The current prospective study on a national registry of PID patients showed that with only 1.23 folds higher incidence of infections, these patients present a 10-folds higher mortality rate compared to population mainly in patients with combined immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation. Therefore, further management modalities against COVID-19 should be considered to improve the survival rate in these two PID entities using hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunomodulatory agents.
2020-12-01 General laboratory tests, immunologic investigation, computed tomographies of the chest of 17 primary immunodeficient patients infected with COVID-19
Mohammad MA, Koul S, Olivecrona GK, Gӧtberg M, Tydén P, [...], Erlinge D
Heart 106 (23) 1812-1818
Most reports on the declining incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during the COVID-19 have either been anecdotal, survey results or geographically limited to areas with lockdowns. We examined the incidence of MI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, which has remained an open society with a different public health approach fighting COVID-19. We assessed the incidence rate (IR) as well as the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of all MI referred for coronary angiography in Sweden using the nationwide Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR), during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden (1 March 2020-7 May 2020) in relation to the same days 2015-2019. A total of 2443 MIs were referred for coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an IR 36 MIs/day (204 MIs/100 000 per year) compared with 15 213 MIs during the reference period with an IR of 45 MIs/day (254 MIs/100 000 per year) resulting in IRR of 0.80, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.86), p<0.001. Results were consistent in all investigated patient subgroups, indicating no change in patient category seeking cardiac care. Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21). Time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was shorter during the pandemic and PCI was equally performed, indicating no change in quality of care during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the incidence of MI referred for invasive treatment strategy. No differences in overall short-term case fatality or quality of care indicators were observed.
2020-12-00 Available on request
Pakpour AH, Al Mamun F, Hosen I, Griffiths MD, Mamun MA
Data Brief 33 106621
This paper presents the dataset concerning knowledge, preventive behavior, psychological consequences, and suicidal behavior regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected through an online based cross-sectional survey between April 1 and April 10 in 64 districts at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. A total of 10,067 participants' data were recruited for analysis. The survey contained items concerning (i) socio-demographic information, (ii) knowledge concerning COVID-19, (iii) behavior towards COVID-19, (iv) lockdown and economic issues, (v) assessment of fear of COVID-19, (vi) assessment of insomnia, (vii) assessment of depression, and (viii) assessment of suicidal ideation. Data were analyzed utilizing SPSS (version 22) and are represented as frequencies and percentages based on responses to the whole survey. Given that the data were collected across the whole nation, government authorities and healthcare policymakers can use the data to develop various models and/or policies regarding preventive strategies and help raise awareness through health education towards COVID-19.
Fellman D, Ritakallio L, Waris O, Jylkkä J, Laine M
Front Psychol 11 576466
Increasing evidence indicates that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with adverse psychological effects, including heightened levels of anxiety. This study examined whether COVID-19-related anxiety levels during the early stage of the pandemic predicted demanding working memory (WM) updating performance. Altogether, 201 healthy adults (age range, 18-50) mostly from North America and the British Isles were recruited to this study via the crowdsourcing site The results showed that higher levels of COVID-19-related anxiety during the first weeks of the pandemic outbreak were associated with poorer WM performance as measured by the n-back paradigm. Critically, the unique role of COVID-19-related anxiety on WM could not be explained by demographic factors, or other psychological factors such as state and trait anxiety or fluid intelligence. Moreover, across three assessment points spanning 5-6 weeks, COVID-19-related anxiety levels tended to decrease over time. This pattern of results may reflect an initial psychological "shock wave" of the pandemic, the cognitive effects of which may linger for some time, albeit the initial anxiety associated with the pandemic would change with habituation and increasing information. Our results contribute to the understanding of cognitive-affective reactions to a major disaster.
2020-11-26 Available on request
Lundon DJ, Mohamed N, Lantz A, Goltz HH, Kelly BD, [...], Tewari AK
Front Public Health 8 571364
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic exploits existing inequalities in social determinants of health (SDOH) in disease burden and access to healthcare. Few studies have examined these emerging disparities using indicators of SDOH. Objective: To evaluate predictors of COVID-19 test positivity, morbidity, and mortality and their implications for inequalities in SDOH and for future policies and health care improvements. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross sectional analysis was performed on all patients tested for COVID-19 on the basis of symptoms with either a history of travel to at risk regions or close contact with a confirmed case, across the Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS) up until April 26th 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was death from COVID-19 and secondary outcomes were test positivity, and morbidity (e.g., hospitalization and intubation caused by COVID-19). Results: Of 20,899 tested patients, 8,928 tested positive, 1,701 were hospitalized, 684 were intubated, and 1,179 died from COVID-19. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, New York City borough (derived from first 3 digits of zip-code), and English as preferred language were significant predictors of test positivity, hospitalization, intubation and COVID-19 mortality following multivariable logistic regression analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: People residing in poorer boroughs were more likely to be burdened by and die from COVID-19. Our results highlight the importance of integrating comprehensive SDOH data into healthcare efforts with at-risk patient populations.
2020-11-24 Available on request
Al-Tammemi AB, Akour A, Alfalah L
Front Psychol 11 562213
Since the spread of COVID-19 on a global scale, most of efforts at national and international levels were directed to mitigate the spread of the disease and its physical harm, paying less attention to the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on global mental health especially at early stages of the pandemic. This study aimed to assess and explore (i) The levels of psychological distress and its correlates (ii) Motivation for distance learning (iii) Coping activities and pandemic related concerns, among university students in Jordan in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire. The measure of psychological distress was obtained using the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, while other questions have explored our study's second and third aims. A total of 381 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Female participants slightly predominated the sample ( n = 199, 52.2%). The respondents aged 18-38 years (mean 22.6 years, SD: 3.16). Concerning distress severity, most of respondents were regarded as having severe psychological distress (n = 265, 69.5%). 209 students (54.9%) reported that they had no motivation for distance learning. Ordinal logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between distress severity and many predictors. Among the predictors that were found to act as protective factors against higher levels of distress included older age (aOR = 0.64, P = 0.022; 95% CI: 0.44-0.94), and having a strong motivation for distance learning (aOR = 0.10, P = 0.048; 95% CI: 0.01-0.96). In contrary, being a current smoker (aOR = 1.99, P = 0.049; 95% CI: 1.10-3.39), and having no motivation for distance learning (aOR = 2.49, P = 0.007; 95% CI: 1.29-4.80) acted as risk factors for having higher levels of psychological distress among the students. The most common coping activity reported was spending more time on social media platforms (n = 269, 70.6%), and 209 students (54.9%) reported distance learning as their most distressing concern. The COVID-19 pandemic and related control measures could impact the mental health of individuals, including students. We recommend a nationwide psychological support program to be incorporated into Jordan's preparedness plan and response strategy in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.
2020-11-06 Available on request
Pellert M, Lasser J, Metzler H, Garcia D
Front Big Data 3 32
To track online emotional expressions on social media platforms close to real-time during the COVID-19 pandemic, we built a self-updating monitor of emotion dynamics using digital traces from three different data sources in Austria. This allows decision makers and the interested public to assess dynamics of sentiment online during the pandemic. We used web scraping and API access to retrieve data from the news platform, Twitter, and a chat platform for students. We documented the technical details of our workflow to provide materials for other researchers interested in building a similar tool for different contexts. Automated text analysis allowed us to highlight changes of language use during COVID-19 in comparison to a neutral baseline. We used special word clouds to visualize that overall difference. Longitudinally, our time series showed spikes in anxiety that can be linked to several events and media reporting. Additionally, we found a marked decrease in anger. The changes lasted for remarkably long periods of time (up to 12 weeks). We have also discussed these and more patterns and connect them to the emergence of collective emotions. The interactive dashboard showcasing our data is available online at Our work is part of a web archive of resources on COVID-19 collected by the Austrian National Library.
Burn E, You SC, Sena AG, Kostka K, Abedtash H, [...], Ryan P
Nat Commun 11 (1) 5009
Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.
Calderón-Larrañaga A, Vetrano DL, Rizzuto D, Bellander T, Fratiglioni L, [...], Dekhtyar S
BMJ Glob Health 5 (10)
We aimed to describe the distribution of excess mortality (EM) during the first weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Stockholm Region, Sweden, according to age, sex and sociodemographic context. Weekly all-cause mortality data were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the period 1 January 2015 to 17 May 2020. EM during the first 20 weeks of 2020 was estimated by comparing observed mortality rates with expected mortality rates during the five previous years (N=2 379 792). EM variation by socioeconomic status (tertiles of income, education, Swedish-born, gainful employment) and age distribution (share of 70+-year-old persons) was explored based on Demographic Statistics Area (DeSO) data. EM was first detected during the week of 23-29 March 2020. During the peak week of the epidemic (6-12 April 2020), an EM of 150% was observed (152% in 80+-year-old women; 183% in 80+-year-old men). During the same week, the highest EM was observed for DeSOs with lowest income (171%), lowest education (162%), lowest share of Swedish-born (178%) and lowest share of gainfully employed residents (174%). EM was further increased in areas with higher versus lower proportion of younger people (magnitude of increase: 1.2-1.7 times depending on socioeconomic measure). Living in areas characterised by lower socioeconomic status and younger populations was linked to excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Stockholm Region. These conditions might have facilitated viral spread. Our findings highlight the well-documented vulnerability linked to increasing age and sociodemographic context for COVID-19-related death.
2020-10-00 Available on request (provided by Statistics Sweden, SCB)
Morgantini LA, Naha U, Wang H, Francavilla S, Acar Ö, [...], Weine SM
PLoS One 15 (9) e0238217
2020-09-03 Individual-level data on exposure, perception, and workload collected from 2,707 healthcare professionals from 60 countries
Ioannidis JPA, Axfors C, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG
Environ Res 188 109890
To provide estimates of the relative rate of COVID-19 death in people <65 years old versus older individuals in the general population, the absolute risk of COVID-19 death at the population level during the first epidemic wave, and the proportion of COVID-19 deaths in non-elderly people without underlying diseases in epicenters of the pandemic. Cross-sectional survey of countries and US states with at least 800 COVID-19 deaths as of April 24, 2020 and with information on the number of deaths in people with age <65. Data were available for 14 countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK) and 13 US states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania). We also examined available data on COVID-19 deaths in people with age <65 and no underlying diseases. Proportion of COVID-19 deaths in people <65 years old; relative mortality rate of COVID-19 death in people <65 versus ≥65 years old; absolute risk of COVID-19 death in people <65 and in those ≥80 years old in the general population as of June 17, 2020; absolute COVID-19 mortality rate expressed as equivalent of mortality rate from driving a motor vehicle. Individuals with age <65 account for 4.5-11.2% of all COVID-19 deaths in European countries and Canada, 8.3-22.7% in the US locations, and were the majority in India and Mexico. People <65 years old had 30- to 100-fold lower risk of COVID-19 death than those ≥65 years old in 11 European countries and Canada, 16- to 52-fold lower risk in US locations, and less than 10-fold in India and Mexico. The absolute risk of COVID-19 death as of June 17, 2020 for people <65 years old in high-income countries ranged from 10 (Germany) to 349 per million (New Jersey) and it was 5 per million in India and 96 per million in Mexico. The absolute risk of COVID-19 death for people ≥80 years old ranged from 0.6 (Florida) to 17.5 per thousand (Connecticut). The COVID-19 mortality rate in people <65 years old during the period of fatalities from the epidemic was equivalent to the mortality rate from driving between 4 and 82 miles per day for 13 countries and 5 states, and was higher (equivalent to the mortality rate from driving 106-483 miles per day) for 8 other states and the UK. People <65 years old without underlying predisposing conditions accounted for only 0.7-3.6% of all COVID-19 deaths in France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Georgia, and New York City and 17.7% in Mexico. People <65 years old have very small risks of COVID-19 death even in pandemic epicenters and deaths for people <65 years without underlying predisposing conditions are remarkably uncommon. Strategies focusing specifically on protecting high-risk elderly individuals should be considered in managing the pandemic.
2020-09-00 Number of COVID-19 deaths contributed by specific age group and population characteristics for 14 countries and 13 US states